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Signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation

signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation

Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO [9]. San Marcos' Temecula campus take a tour of the classrooms during an orientation tour this week. (Howard Lipin). Aug. 9, 2011 7:07 PM PT. notify the Reporter of Decisions, Supreme Court of the United States, Wash 9. Cite as: 554 U. S. ____ (2008). Opinion of the Court.
signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation

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Signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation
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APA Citation Examples

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Published August 2, 2019. Updated November 9, 2021.

This guide will show you how to structure APA citations northwest farm credit services online banking to the Publication manual of the Purlisse bb cream swatches Psychological Association (7th edition) and will show you example citations for different source types. For information on other APA topics—such as formatting your paper, creating a title page, etc.—check out the EasyBib APA format guide.  It even has an example paper.

Table of Contents

The Basics of APA

We’re going to start from the beginning for all of you newbies out there, or for those of you looking for a refresher.

APA is an abbreviation which stands for American Psychological Association. This is a massive organization, responsible for creating and sharing psychology-related publications, research, and databases.

Basically, they keep psychologists and other similar roles in the loop with what’s happening in the world of psychology. With close to 120,000 members, this is THE leading world organization related to psychology.They are not officially associated with this guide, but the information here talks about their citing format and rules in depth.

Why were APA citations created and why did my teacher ask me to use this style?

Are you scratching your head, wondering what is APA style is and how this all relates to your research project? To make a long story short, the American Psychological Association did something really cool. Back in 1952, they created a way for ALL psychology researchers to structure their citations. This standard method did three things:

  1. Psychology researchers were all able to display the sources they used in a systematic way.
  2. Readers were able to easily understand the information shown in citations.
  3. There was enough information displayed in the citations for readers to go out and find the exact sources on their own.

APA citations were such a hit, they were so good, that other science disciplines soon adopted the citation format as well. In fact, other disciplines outside of the science world use APA style today, too. So, whether you’re creating a psychology-related research project or not, there’s a good chance you were asked to create your citations in APA style.

Currently in its 7th edition, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is one of the most frequently used style guides for academic writing today!

With the 7th edition just coming onto the scene in 2020, the American Psychological Association does not expect to see widespread usage of the 7th edition until later in 2020. This is why you should always double-check with your teacher on whether they want you to use the 6th edition or the 7th edition for your projects.

Click here for more basics on this style.

Another widely used style is MLA format. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other styles, so perhaps your teacher or professor requested a completely different one. If you’re in that boat, head to to check out more styles. While you’re at it, poke around and check out our APA reference generator. It may be just what you’re looking for.

References vs. Citations – What’s the difference?

References and citations are two terms that are thrown around a lot and quite often mean the same thing. A reference, or citation, shows the reader that a piece of information originated elsewhere. But, along came APA and decided to throw a curveball at us. In APA, the two terms have two different meanings.

A citation is found in the actual writing of an APA research paper.

In-text citation example:

“Lecture-rooms are numerous and large, but the number of young people who genuinely thirst after truth and justice is small” (Einstein, 2007, p. 5).

A reference is found on the reference page, which is the last page of a research paper. 

Reference Page Example:

Einstein, A. (2007). The world as I see it. Google Books. (Original work published 1934)

The information included in an APA citation is just a snapshot of the information found in the full reference. For more information on when it’s appropriate to include a citation in your paper, head to section 8.1-8.10 of the Publication manual.

Now, what makes things even trickier is that most teachers and professors use the term “APA citations” when they’re actually talking about the full references. How many times have you heard your teacher say, “Make sure you have your citations on the last page!”

Eek! So, to stay on the same page as your teacher, this guide shows you how to make references for an APA reference page, but we’re calling the page “APA Citations.” Someone’s gotta give in, right? Looks like it’s us.

If you’re looking for a quick read on the citations found in the body of the paper, check out our APA Parenthetical Citation page. It’s just one of the many free APA citation guides available on Need an APA citation generator? You can find one at as well!

If you’re looking for help with the writing or grammar in your paper, check out our research, pronoun, and determiner pages. We have tons of other free grammar pages too!

A rundown on references

Before we get into the nitty-gritty details on how to structure references for your APA paper, let’s get one more quick piece of information off the table.

References are added to research papers and projects only when a source is included in the writing itself.

We don’t add references to a reference page if we want to simply suggest other, similar titles. No! We create references when an actual piece of information from another source is added into the project.

Does your paper include a piece of data from a report? Great! You copied a line of text from a case study and put it in your project (with quotation marks around it)? Perfect! You included a bar graph you found in a brochure? Fantastic! Make sure you create an APA citation in the text of your paper and include the reference on the final page.

The only exception to the above rule is if you’re creating an “annotated bibliography.” For more on that, check out our APA annotated bibliography page.

In case you were wondering, the same goes for MLA in-text & parenthetical citations on the MLA works cited page.

Ready to get started? The next section of the guide is going to explain, step-by-step, how to structure every nook and cranny of your references.

But, if you’re dreaming of an APA citation maker to help make the pain go away from building your references from scratch, you’re in luck. has an APA citation maker! In just a few clicks, our technology structures and styles each and every APA citation for you. If you don’t know much about it, head to the EasyBib homepage to learn more.

While you’re at it, try out our APA cover page maker, found on the main page as well!

Fundamentals of an APA citation

This entire section goes into detail on each component of a reference. If you’re looking to learn how to style the names of the authors, the title, publishing information, and other aspects related to the reference, this section is for you!

Formatting Author Information

If you want to skip the small talk and see an APA style paper example, go signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation the “Citation Resources” menu on this page and select “APA Format Guide.” It includes a title page example, an APA paper example, and an APA reference page example.It’s all there for you and the best part about it is it’s free! Do yourself a favor and take a peek at it now!

Author information

The very first piece of information in most references is the author’s name(s). We say “most,” because some sources may not have an author (such as websites, the Bible…). If your source doesn’t have an author, do not include any information about an author in your reference.

Citing a Source with 1 Author

APA Structure:

Last name of the Author, First initial. Middle initial.

APA Example:

Doe, J. B.

To see some examples, scroll down to the bottom half of this page.

Citing a Source with 2 Authors

Does your source have two authors? Do not put the names in alphabetical order. They should be written in the order they’re displayed on the source.

APA Structure:

Last name of the 1st listed Author, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Last name of the 2nd listed Author, First initial. Middle initial.

APA Example:

Doe, J. B. & Chen, W. I.

For an example of a reference with two authors according to the 7th edition of the Publication manual, scroll down to the “Journal Articles found in Print” section, or check out section 9.7-9.12 in the Publication manual.

Citing a Source with 3 to 20 Authors

Does your source have three to twenty authors? The American Psychological Association has made some updates on how to list multiple authors in your citations. If you have between three to twenty authors, list all the authors names (Last Name, Initials). Put them in the same order they’re listed in the source. Commas separate names, and put an ampersand right before the last name.

APA Example:

Bos, G., Hajek, S., Kogman-Appel, K., & Mensching, G. (2019). A Glossary of Latin and Italo-Romance Medico-Botanical Terms in Hebrew Characters on an Illustrated Manuscript Page (Ms. Oxford, Bodleian Opp. 688, fol. 177b). Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism 19(2), 169-199.

Citing a Source with 21+ Authors

If your source has over twenty authors, list the last name and initials of the first 19 authors, placing a comma between each name. After the name of the 19th author, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining authors’ names. Then, list the final author’s name in front of it.

Here’s a formatting example for 21+ names using the U.S. presidents (this is NOT a reference example):

Washington, G., Adams, J., Jefferson, T., Madison, J., Monroe, J., Adams, J. Q., Jackson, A., Van Buren, M., Harrison, W. H., Tyler, J., Polk, J., Taylor, Z., Fillmore, M., Pierce, F., Buchanan, J., Lincoln, A., Johnson, A., Grant, U. S., Hayes, R. B., … Trump, D. J.

Citing an Author that is an organization or company

If your source is written by an organization or company:

Some sources are written and released by companies, not necessarily individual people. For example, most brochures at museums only display the institution’s name. Advertisements also only show the company’s name. If the source you’re attempting to cite only shows a group or organization’s name, place it in the reference in the place you’d normally include an individual person’s name.

Write out the name of the group in full; do not use abbreviations. For example, it may seem okay to use USDA, but APA writing style prefers you write out United States Department of Agriculture.

If you’re looking for information on how to style your own name in APA headings, find the example paper on

Formatting Titles & Dates

Formatting the date of publication

The date the source was published is the next item shown in a reference. It’s directly after the author’s name.

For the majority of sources, include only the year in parentheses.

If you’re citing an article in a magazine, include the year and the month.

APA Example:

Peterzell, J. (1990, April). Better late than never. Time, 135(17), 20–21.

Check out the examples towards the bottom of the page, or head to sections 9.13-9.17 of the Publication manual to see how dates are displayed.

Title rules and capitalization

Titles are the next piece of information shown in a reference. Titles are often tricky for people to style. Students often wonder, “Should I type out the title as it’s shown on the source?” “Should the title be written in italics or underlined?” Here are the answers to (hopefully) all of your title-related questions:

Which letters are capitalized?

Most titles are written with a capital letter in these places:

  • At the beginning of the title
  • At the beginning of a proper noun
  • At the beginning of the subtitle

It may be tempting to write the title as you see it shown on the source, or with capital letters at the beginning of every important word, but that’s not how APA referencing does it.

Here are a few examples of proper lettering:

  • A star is born
  • Spider-Man: Into the spiderverse
  • Harry Potter and the deathly hallows

The only source types that are written with a capital letter at the beginning of every important word are periodicals. Some examples include the titles of newspapers, journals, and magazines.


  • The New York Times
  • School Library Journal,
  • Us Weekly

How should I style the title?

  • Anything that stands alone is written in italics. When we say “stands alone,” we mean it isn’t part of a larger collection. Most books are a single source, so they’re written in italics. Other examples include movies, brochures, dissertations, and music albums.
  • Sources that are part of a collection are written without italics. Website pages, journal articles, chapters in books, and individual songs (from an album) are written without italics.
  • Remember, the styling information above is for the APA reference page only! Citations in the text of the paper are styled differently. If you need to see a full APA sample paper, check out the other resources on!

Check out some of the examples below to see how the titles are typed out and styled. You can also head to section 9.18-9.22 of the Publication Manual for more details

If it’s not the actual title, but an APA title page for your paper that you need help with, check out the Title Page APA creator on the homepage of! Or, check out the main guide for this style, which includes an APA cover page template.

Additional information about a source

It can be difficult to understand a source type just by looking at an APA style citation. Sometimes it isn’t clear if you’re looking at a citation for a presentation, a blog post, lecture notes, or a completely different source type.

To clear up any confusion for your reader, you can include additional information directly after the title. This additional information about the source type is written in brackets with the first word having a capital letter.

APA Example:

Wilson, T. V. & Signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation, H. (2019, May 13). Godzilla: The start of his story [Audio podcast]. iHeart Radio.

Thanks to the information in the brackets, signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation reader can easily see that the source is an audio podcast.

Check out the various examples towards the bottom of this page.

Publication information

Publication information includes the name of the publisher. In most cases, the publication information is only included for print sources. Check out the book reference below to see the publication information in action.

Citing Books in APA

You’ll find plenty of source types below. If you don’t see what you’re looking for, try out our APA reference generator on! Or, here’s a great informative site we like. If you’d like to see a full APA sample paper, take a glance at the main citation guide for this style on

Citing books in print in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of the book. Publisher.

APA Example:

Gaiman, N. (1996). Neverwhere. HarperCollins.

Looking for more examples? Check out our APA book citation page.

Citing a chapter in a print book in APA

A reference page APA citation for a chapter in a print book is styled the same way as the entire book. It is not necessary to showcase or display the individual chapter. However, in the text of the paper, the chapter is shown like this: (Author’s Last name, Year, Chapter #).

Citing a chapter in an edited book in print in APA

An edited book is one that was compiled by an author. Each individual chapter, or section, is written by someone else. Since you’re probably citing the specific chapter, rather than the whole entire book, place the name of the chapter’s author in the first position.

APA Structure:

Chapter Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Chapter title. In F. M. Editor’s Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (Xrd ed., pp. x-x). Publisher.

APA Example:

Alexander, G. R. (2015). Multicultural education in nursing. In D. M. Billings, & J. A. Halstead (Eds.), Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (5th ed., pp. 263-281). Google Books.

Citing an e-book in APA

To cite an eBook, cite it the same way as you would a print book.

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book. Publisher. URL

APA Example:

Alcott, L. M. (1905). Under the lilacs. Little, Brown, and Company.

If you’re using the EasyBib APA citation generator to cite your e-books, click on the “book” source type.

APA Example:

Gaiman, N. (2009). Coraline. HarperCollins.

If you’re using’s APA citation generator to cite your e-books, click on the “book” source type.

Wondering what to do if you’re using a book that was reprinted? Check out the example of Einstein’s book, found towards the top of this guide.

Citing The Bible in APA

Since the bible signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation considered a “classical work,” and widely known, it is not necessary to create a full reference. Only include a citation in the signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation of the paper.

Two items need to be included:

  1. The title and version of the source, such as the New Living Bible
  2. The names, verses, chapters, or any numbers associated with the section you’re referring to.


APA Example:

“Then the king asked her, “What do you want, Esther? What is your request? I will give it to you, even if it’s half the kingdom” (Esther 5:5 New Living Translation).

Citing Journals and Articles in APA

Citing journal articles found in print in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of journal article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page range.

APA Example:

Reeve, A. H., Fjeldsa, J., & Borregaard, M. K. (2018). Ecologically flexible endemics dominate Indo-Pacific bird communities. Journal of Biogeography, 45(8), 1980-1982.

Your APA style paper is easy to piece together with the tools and services on Try out our APA citation machine, which structures your references in just a few clicks. If you’re looking for the perfect APA cover page, give our APA title page maker a whirl.

Citing journal articles found online in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of journal article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page range. //

APA Example:

Reeve, A. H., Fjeldsa, J., & Borregaard, M. K. (2018). Ecologically flexible endemics dominate Indo-Pacific bird communities. Journal of Biogeography, 45(8), 1980-1982. //

For more on journals, take a peek at our APA journal page. Or, make your citations in just a few clicks with our APA citation generator.

Citing newspaper articles in print in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article’s title. Title of Newspaper, pp. xx-xx.

APA Example:

Boutilier, A. (2019, May 29). Facebook won’t pull fake content for election: Official says it’s not company’s role to draw line as MPs blast Zuckerberg for not testifying. Toronto Star, p. 1.

Citing newspaper articles found on the Internet in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article’s title. Title of Newspaper. URL

APA Example:

Boutilier, A. (2019, May 28). Facebook refuses to remove false content during Canadian election. The Star.

Kale, S. (2020, March 9). How to keep your hands clean – without getting dry skin. The Guardian. hands-clean-without-getting-dry-skin

Citing magazines read in print in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month or Season). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue), page range.

APA Example:

Freedman, A. (2019, June). How to choose a gaming laptop: You can play your game and take it with you. TechLife Australia, 90, 78-81.

Citing magazine articles read over the internet in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year, Month). Title of magazine article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue), page range. URL

APA Example:

Savage, P. (2019, May). Double dragon: Yakuza Kiwami 2 is a return to form for the singular crime series. PC Gamer, 319, 80.

Citing a Source on the Internet in APA

Citing digital sources in this style is much easier than other styles. If you’re wondering why, it’s because a lot of information isn’t included in the reference.

For most digital sources, only five items are usually needed:

  • The name of the author
  • The date the source was published
  • The title of the source
  • The medium (blog post, audio file, pdf, etc.)
  • The website address

Here’s some more information related to web content:

  1. Only include the medium if it’s unique or if it will help the reader understand the source type.
  2. Include the website address at the end of the citation.
  3. Do not place a period at the end of the website address.

Have a digital source? Need to cite APA? Check out some of the food bank jobs seattle wa below.

Citing a blog in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of posting). Title of post. Blog or Website name. URL

APA Example:

Chockrek, E. (2019, May 29). 7 summer activities that help boost your college applications. EasyBib.

See another example on our APA citation website page.

Citing social media in APA

Here’s the APA template for most social media platforms:

APA Structure:

Last name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Day of posting). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Describe any attachment] [Tweet OR Facebook page OR Instagram photo OR Instagram post]. Site Name. URL


Lem, E. [@lemesther]. (2019, October 2). Spotted @Chegg promo celebration. Ladies who…”leopard.”Cheers to all the upcoming promos. #marketing #UEx. [Image attached [Tweet]. Twitter.

If the name of the individual is unknown or unlisted on the profile (such as Lady Gaga), place the username first, without brackets

APA Example:

Ladygaga. (2019, May 20). I’m so proud of @momgerm for being asked to serve as Goodwill Ambassador for @WHO. The goal of @btwfoundation is [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

If there are emojis, try to recreate them or describe them in brackets.

APA Example:

Hawaii Volcanoes NPS [@Volcanoes_NPS]. (2020, February 26). Half the park is after dark! [flashlight emoji] In addition to dark night skies, evening in the park provides a great chance. [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

For more about citing social media, head to section 10.15 of the Publication manual. 

Citing online encyclopedias & dictionaries – Group author

If you conducted or watched a personal interview and the transcript or audio is not available for the reader, then there really isn’t any point to create a full reference. These types of sources are not recoverable and the reader would be unable to find the interview on their own. Instead, only create a citation in the text of the paper. Use the first initial, middle initial, and last name of the person being interviewed, along with “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.

APA Structure:

Institution or organization name. (n.d.). Entry title. In Title of Website or reference. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

APA Example:

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Doleful. In dictionary. Retrieved March 1, 2020, from

Citing online encyclopedias & dictionaries – Known author

If there is a known author, cite the source this way:

APA Structure:

Last name, F. M. (Date published). Entry title. In F. M. Last name (ed.), In Title of Website or reference. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

APA Example:

Mann, M. E. & Selin, H. (n.d.). Global warming. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved March 1, 2020, from

Citing Wikipedia

Cite a Wikipedia page just like a normal webpage, but use an archived version. Go to the “View history” tab at the top of a Wikipedia page to find these archived versions, their publishing date, and their URL.

APA Structure:

Article title. (Year, Month Day). In Wikipedia. URL

APA Example:

Kinetic energy (2019, December 27). In Wikipedia.

If you want to learn how to cite websites in MLA, click on the link.

An APA generator is available to you on Take the stress out of building the references for your APA style paper and try it out!

While you’re at it, it may be helpful to take a glance at our APA paper template. It can be found on the EasyBib Writing Center page. You can use the APA paper example to help structure your own APA title page and paper.

Citing Media Sources in APA

Citing a song or music listened to online in APA

Modern songs (e.g., that song you heard on the radio this morning) should list the name of the recording artist’s name. Classical music lists the song’s composer (e.g., think Mozart, Beethoven, etc.).

Note: include a URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval (like if they only post their music to SoundCloud or on their own specific website). If the song is available across multiple platforms, no URL is needed.

APA Structure for a modern song:

Artist’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Song’s title [Song].  On Title of album. Publisher(s).

APA Example:

Grande, A. (2019). 7 rings [Song]. On thank u, next. Republic Records.

APA Structure for a classical song:

Artist’s Last Name, F. M. (Year published). Song’s title [Song recorded by Artist’s Name]. On Title of album. Publisher.

APA Example:

Bach, J. S. (1997). Toccata and Fugue in D minor [Song recorded by William McVicker]. On Great organ classics. Sony Music Entertainment UK Limited.

Sheet music in APA

To cite APA sheet music, cite it exactly the same as a book. If it’s found online, cite it as a website.

Citing streamed videos in APA

Use this format if you’re citing a video found online (such as a YouTube video).

APA Structure:

Person who posted the video’s Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Day of posting or publishing). Video’s title [Video]. URL

APA Example:

Vliegenthart, S. [booksandquills]. (2018, December 3). Books from uni we didn’t hate [Video]. YouTube.

If the name of the individual isn’t available, start with the username, and remove the brackets.

APA Examples:

Chegg. (2018, November 15). One common grammar error to avoid [Video]. YouTube.

Maroon 5. (2018, May 30). Girls like you ft. Cardi B [Video]. YouTube.

If you’re in need of an APA citation machine to do the work for you, check out the homepage on! We even have a free Title Page APA creator on the main page as well!

Citing a film or movie in Signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation Structure:

Director’s Last Name. F. M. (Director). (Year published). Film’s title [Film]. Publisher(s) or URL

APA Example:

Gerwig, G. (Director). (2017). Lady bird [Video]. IAC Films; Scott Rudin Productions.

Citing Additional Sources in APA

Citing a published thesis or dissertation signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation a database in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last Name, F. M. (Year created). Thesis or Dissertation’s title [Master’s thesis OR Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution]. Name of database or archive.

APA Example:

Schluckebier, M. E. (2013). Dreams worth pursuing: How college students develop and articulate their purpose in life [Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa]. ERIC.

If you’re looking for an APA citation builder to do the work for you, check out’s APA generator!

Citing a conference paper in APA

APA Structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Days of Conference). Title of conference paper [Type of presentation]. Conference Name, Location. URL or DOI.

APA Example:

Fowle, M. white high top air force ones womens, September). The entrepreneurial dream: Happiness, depression, and freedom [Conference presentation]. European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreunership, Aviero, Portugal.

Citing an interview in APA

If you conducted or watched a personal interview and the transcript or audio is not available for the reader, then there really isn’t any point to create a full reference. These types of sources are not recoverable and the reader would be unable to find the interview on their own. Instead, only create a citation in the text of the paper. Use the first initial, middle initial, and last name of the person being interviewed, along with “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.

APA Example:

W. I. Ikemoto (personal communication, June 2, 2019)

If the interview is recoverable, include the full reference on the final page of the project. If the interview was found in a magazine, use the magazine structure. If the interview was signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation on a blog, use the blog structure. Look for the APA headings above that match your specific source type.

Don’t forget, our APA citation machine structures pretty much everything for you. Find it on’s homepage and give our APA citation generator a try.

Didn’t find what you needed? Still a bit confused? Learn more here. You can also take the guesswork out of making your references with our handy APA citation generator, found at the top of this page.

Putting it All Together

You’ve structured your sources correctly, right? You have the periods, italics, and commas where they belong? Capital letters where they’re supposed to be? Great! You’re almost through! The last step is organizing your citations properly on the page. For easy to follow, in-depth instructions on structuring the last page in your project, check out our APA reference page. If you’d like to see a sample APA paper, check out the main guide for this style on!

Before you hit submit, make sure you run your paper through our plagiarism checker. It checks for instances of accidental plagiarism and scans for spelling and grammatical errors. Even if you think you have every verb, adverb, or interjection where it belongs, you may be surprised with what our innovative technology suggests.

Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

Listing of APA templates

Published August 2, 2019. Updated March 10, 2020. 

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a dedicated school library media specialist and one of the in-house EasyBib librarians. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

How do I use the EasyBib APA citation generator?

Go to and follow the directions to create a citation. After you create a citation or citation list, you can choose APA as your citation style (default is MLA). APA is a premium style, so you will need a subscription or trial to EasyBib Plus in order to create citations in APA. Upgrade your account at


Tiny CSU campus growing fast

At a time when most of California’s public colleges and universities are cutting back to deal with sharp funding reductions, at least one small campus is rapidly expanding.

When classes begin later this month at the satellite branch of California State University San Marcos here, the student body will be twice as large as it was in the fall semester of 2010 and approximately four times the size of the inaugural class that entered in January 2009.

The numbers are small. There will be only a little more than 200 students on campus, which offers only upper division and graduate courses, on the first day of classes. But annual growth of 20 percent is projected over the next five years, with unspecified expansion anticipated well after that.

“We’ll be adding more degree programs, more certificate programs,” said Suzanne Signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation, CSUSM’s associate dean of extended learning, who oversees the campus. “Next fall we’ll be adding a bachelor’s in business administration and a master’s in business administration. And we are working with the city, the business community and the health care community to see what other programs they would like us to offer.”

CSUSM’s Temecula campus is the only university outpost between San Marcos, Orange County, Riverside and San Bernardino.

“This is a very underserved population,” Lingold said.

The key to the exponential growth — besides demand — is that the Temecula program’s operations are fully self-supporting. With the California State University system facing a $650 million reduction in state funding for the 2011-12 fiscal year, its 23 campuses are reducing the number of classes offered and leaving faculty positions vacant.

“The only way the university could offer classes up here was through (the department of) Extended Learning on a self-supporting basis, totally funded with the students’ tuition,” said Lingold.

By way of example, the cost of a bachelor’s degree in kinesiology at the Temecula campus is $24,162. The same course work at CSUSM would be $19,788.

“Unit-wise, it’s more expensive, sure,” said Sasha Scofield, 24, who moved from La Mesa to Temecula after getting accepted by the campus.

“But, No. 1, we’re promised we’ll have a bachelor’s degree in two years. They can’t promise you that in San Marcos,” said Scofield, who is getting a bachelor’s degree in kinesiology. “Not having to crash classes, no waiting lists, that makes a big difference.”

CSUSM has offered some classes in Temecula on an irregular basis since 1999, but the degree granting program is less than three yeas old.

“About four or five years ago, our City Council really made higher education its top goal,” said Aaron Adams, Temecula’s assistant city manager. “We believe higher education is the foundation for economic development.

“Cal State San Marcos was out here teaching limited course offerings. We sat down with them to figure out how we could do more. We courted them, we recruited them.”

The city helped the university find space in an office park and paid for the needed improvements. CSUSM started out by offering one degree, an accelerated bachelor’s degree in nursing.

The Temecula program — in which all classes are taught by regular CSUSM faculty — currently offers graduate and undergraduate degrees in nursing and kinesiology, with the business degrees to come. And there are plans to offer training in viticulture, hospitality and biotech to serve some of the region’s major industries.

“To have a Cal State in the region is really big when you are recruiting businesses,” said Morris Myers, executive director of the region’s economic development organization.

Within 18 months, the program outgrew its initial space. With help again from the city government, the university struck a $1 per year lease with the Temecula Valley Unified School District to use an unneeded elementary school campus.

The city of Temecula gave CSUSM $3 million in redevelopment funds, with a much smaller sum contributed by nearby Murrieta, to build labs, wire “smart” classrooms and otherwise develop the campus into to a university quality facility. It opened a year ago.

“They will grow out of that campus, too, probably before the end of the lease,” said Adams. “And we will work with them again. But that will be a good problem.”


What Is Autism?

What is asd? Learn diagnosis and symptoms. Little boy playing with blocks

Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. According to the Centers for Disease Control, autism affects an estimated 1 in 44 children in the United States today.

We know that there is not one autism but many subtypes, most influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Because autism is a spectrum disorder, each person with autism has a distinct set of strengths and challenges. The ways in which people with autism learn, think and problem-solve can range from highly skilled to severely challenged. Some people with ASD may require significant support in their daily lives, while others may need less support and, in some cases, live entirely independently.

Several factors may influence the development of autism, and it is often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues such as gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, seizures or sleep disorders, as well as mental health challenges such as anxiety, depression and attention issues.

Signs of autism usually appear by age 2 or 3. Some associated development delays can appear even earlier, and often, it can be diagnosed as early as 18 months. Research shows that early intervention leads to positive outcomes later in life for people with autism.


Commonly Used Terms in Addiction Science


Abstinence: Not using drugs or alcohol.

Addiction: A chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive (or difficult to control) drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences, as well as long-lasting changes in the brain. In the past, people who used drugs were called “addicts.” Current appropriate terms are people who use drugs and drug users.

Agonist: A chemical substance that binds to and activates certain receptors on cells, causing a biological response. Oxycodone, morphine, heroin, fentanyl, methadone, and endorphins are all examples of opioid receptor agonists.

Amphetamine: A stimulant drug that acts on the central nervous system (CNS). Amphetamines are medications prescribed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (such as Adderall®) and narcolepsy.

Anabolic-androgenic steroids: Synthetic substances similar to the male hormone testosterone. Often known as “anabolic steroids.” They can promote muscle growth (anabolic effects) and produce changes in male sexual characteristics (androgenic effects) in both males and females.

Analgesics: A group of medications that reduce pain.

Anesthetic: A drug that causes insensitivity to pain and is used for surgeries and other medical procedures.

Antagonist: A chemical substance that binds to and blocks the activation of certain receptors on cells, preventing a biological response. Naloxone is an example of an opioid receptor antagonist.


Barbiturate: A type of CNS depressant sometimes prescribed to promote relaxation and sleep, but more commonly used in surgical procedures and to treat seizure disorders.

Basal ganglia: The area of the brain that plays an important role in positive forms of motivation, including the pleasurable effects of healthy activities like eating, socializing, and sex, and are also involved in the formation of habits and routines. These areas form a key node of what is sometimes called the brain’s “reward circuit.”

Benzodiazepine: A type of CNS depressant sometimes prescribed to relieve anxiety, panic, or acute stress reactions. Some benzodiazepines are prescribed short-term to promote sleep. Diazepam (Valium®) and alprazolam (Xanax®) are among the most widely prescribed benzodiazepine medications.

Brainstem: A group of brain structures that process sensory information and control basic functions needed for survival such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and arousal.

Buprenorphine: An opioid partial agonist medication prescribed for the treatment of opioid addiction that relieves drug cravings without producing the high or dangerous side effects of other opioids.


Cannabidiol (CBD): A component of the marijuana plant without mind-altering effects that is being studied for possible medical uses.

Cannabinoid receptor: The receptor in the brain that recognizes and binds cannabinoids that are produced in the brain (anandamide) or outside the body (THC).

Cannabinoids: Chemicals that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the brain. They are found naturally in the brain (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and also in marijuana (THC and CBD). They are involved in a variety of mental and physical processes, including memory, thinking, concentration, movement, pain regulation, food intake, and reward.

Cannabis: Another name for the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa.

Cardiovascular system: The system consisting of the heart and blood vessels. It delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body.

Central nervous system (CNS): The system consisting of the nerves in the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebellum: A part of the brain that helps regulate posture, balance, and coordination. It is also involved in the processes of emotion, motivation, memory, and thought.

Cerebral cortex: The gray matter that covers the surface of the cerebral signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation, whose functions include sensory processing and motor control along with language, reasoning, decision-making, and judgment.

Cerebral hemispheres: The right and left halves of the brain.

Cerebrum: The upper part of the brain consisting of the left and right hemispheres.

CNS depressants: A class of drugs that include sedatives, tranquilizers, and hypnotics. These drugs slow brain activity, making them useful for treating anxiety, panic, acute stress reactions, and sleep disorders.

Cognition (n): Of or relating to the act or process of thinking, understanding, learning, and remembering.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): A form of psychotherapy that teaches people strategies to identify and correct problematic associations among thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in order to enhance self-control, stop drug use, and address a range of other problems that often co-occur with them.

Comorbidity: When two disorders or illnesses occur in the same person. Drug addiction and other mental illnesses or viral infections (HIV, hepatitis) are often comorbid. Also referred to as co-occurring disorders.

Contingency management: A treatment approach based on providing incentives to support positive behavior change.

Craving: A powerful, often overwhelming desire to use drugs.


Dependence: A condition that can occur with the regular use of illicit or some prescription drugs, even if taken as prescribed. Dependence is characterized by withdrawal symptoms when drug use is stopped. A person can be dependent on a substance without being addicted, but dependence sometimes leads to addiction.

Detoxification: A process in which the body rids itself of a drug, or its metabolites. Medically-assisted detoxification may be needed to help manage a person’s withdrawal symptoms. Detoxification alone is not a treatment for substance use disorders, but this is often the first step in a drug treatment program.

Dopamine: A brain chemical, classified as a neurotransmitter, found in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behavior. Dopamine release in reward areas of the brain is caused by all drugs to which people can become addicted.

Drug abuse: An older diagnostic term that defined use that is unsafe, use that leads a person to fail to fulfill responsibilities or gets them in legal trouble, or use that continues despite causing persistent interpersonal problems. This term is increasingly avoided by professionals because it can perpetuate stigma. Current appropriate terms include: drug use (in the case of illicit substances), drug misuse (in the case of problematic use of legal drugs or prescription medications) and addiction (in the case of substance use disorder).

Drugged driving: Driving a vehicle while impaired due to the intoxicating effects of recent drug use.


Electronic cigarette: A battery-operated device that people use to inhale an aerosol, which typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals; also called e-cigarette, e-cigs, e-vaporizers, or electronic nicotine delivery system.


Flashback: A sudden but temporary recurrence of aspects of a drug experience (including sights, sounds, and feelings) that may occur days, weeks, or even more than a year after using drugs that cause hallucinations.


Hallucinations: Sensations, sounds and/or images that seem real though they are not.

Hippocampus: An area of the brain crucial for learning and memory.

Hypothalamus: A part of the brain that controls many bodily functions, including eating, drinking, body temperature regulation, and the release of many hormones.


Illicit: Illegal or forbidden by law.

Impulsivity: A tendency to act without foresight or regard for consequences and to prioritize immediate rewards over long-term goals.

Injection drug use (IDU): The act of administering drugs by injection. Blood-borne viruses, like HIV and hepatitis, can be transmitted via shared needles or other drug injection equipment.

Intranasal: Taken through the nose.


Limbic system: Interconnected brain structures that process feelings, emotions, and motivations. It is also important for learning and memory.


Mental disorder: A mental condition marked primarily by disorganization of personality, mind, and emotions that seriously impairs the psychological or behavioral functioning of the individual. This is sometimes referred to as a mental health condition. Addiction is a mental disorder.

Methadone: A long-acting opioid agonist medication used for the treatment of opioid addiction and pain. Methadone used for opioid addiction can only be dispensed by opioid treatment programs certified by SAMHSA and approved by the designated state authority.

Motivational Enhancement Therapy: A counseling approach that uses motivational interviewing techniques to help individuals resolve any uncertainties they have about stopping their substance use. The therapy helps the person strengthen their own plan for change and engagement in treatment.


Naloxone: An opioid antagonist medication approved by the FDA to reverse an opioid overdose. It displaces opioid drugs (such as morphine or heroin) from their receptor and prevents further opioid receptor activation.

Naltrexone: A long-acting opioid antagonist medication that prevents receptors from being activated by other opioids. Naltrexone is used to treat alcohol and opioid use disorders.

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS): A condition of withdrawal that occurs when certain drugs pass from the mother through the placenta into the fetus’ bloodstream during pregnancy causing the baby to become drug dependent and experience withdrawal after birth. The type and severity of a baby’s withdrawal symptoms depend on the drug(s) used, how long and how often the mother used, how her body broke down the drug, and if the baby was born full term or prematurely. NAS can require hospitalization and treatment with medication to relieve symptoms.

Neurobiology: The study of the anatomy, function, and diseases of the brain and nervous system.

Neuron (nerve cell): A unique type of cell found in the brain and throughout the body that specializes in the transmission and processing of information.

Neurotransmitter: A chemical compound that acts as a messenger to carry signals from one nerve cell to another.

Norepinephrine: A neurotransmitter that affects heart rate, blood pressure, stress, and attention.

Nucleus accumbens: A brain region in the ventral striatum involved in motivation and reward. Nearly all addictive drugs directly or indirectly increase dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, contributing to their addictive properties.


Opioid receptors: Proteins on the surface of neurons, or other cells, that are activated by endogenous opioids, such as endorphins, and opioid drugs, such as heroin. Opioid receptor subtypes include mu, kappa, and delta.

Overdose: An overdose occurs when a person uses enough of a drug to produce a life-threatening reaction or death.


Paranoia: Extreme and unreasonable distrust of others.

Partial agonist: A substance that binds to and activates a receptor to a lesser degree than a full agonist.

Pharmacodynamics: The way a drug acts on the body. This includes the drug’s interaction with its biological target and the resulting changes (such as activation or blocking of receptors), as well as the relationship between drug dosing and drug effects.

Pharmacokinetics: What the body does to a drug after it has pay my care credit card bill online taken, including how rapidly the drug is absorbed, broken down, and processed by the body.

Pharmacotherapy: Treatment using medications.

Prefrontal cortex: The front part of the brain responsible for reasoning, planning, problem solving, and other higher cognitive functions. This area of the brain is not fully mature until adulthood, which confers greater vulnerability to drug use on the adolescent brain.

Prescription drug misuse: The use of a medication in ways or amounts other than intended by a doctor, by someone other than for whom the medication is prescribed, or for the experience or feeling the medication causes. This term is used interchangeably with “nonmedical” use, a term employed by many national drug use surveys.

Psychedelic drug: A drug that distorts perception, thought, and feeling. This term is typically used to refer to drugs with hallucinogenic effects.

Psychoactive: Having a specific effect on the brain.

Psychosis: Delusional or disordered thinking detached from reality; symptoms often include hallucinations.

Psychotherapeutics: Drugs that have an effect on the function xvault southern bancorp the brain and that are often used to treat psychiatric/neurologic disorders; includes pain relievers, tranquilizers, sedatives, and stimulants.

Psychotropic: Mind-altering.


Receptor: A molecule located on the surface of a cell that recognizes specific chemicals (normally neurotransmitters, hormones, and similar endogenous substances) and transmits the chemical message into the cell.

Recovery: Individuals may have differing definitions for what recovery from substance use disorder means for them. For some, this term is used to describe the voluntary process of improving health and quality of life by pursuing treatment for substance use disorder and/or controlling problematic substance use (See also definitions of recovery from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and American Society of Addiction Medicine).

Relapse: In drug addiction, relapse is the return to drug use after an attempt to stop. Relapse is a common occurrence in many chronic health disorders, including addiction, that requires frequent behavioral and/or pharmacologic adjustments to be treated effectively.

Remission: A medical term meaning that major disease symptoms are eliminated or diminished below a pre-determined harmful level.

Reward: Pleasurable feelings that reinforce behavior and encourage repetition.

Reward system (or brain reward system): A brain circuit that includes the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens, and the prefrontal cortex.

Risk factors: Factors that increase the likelihood of beginning substance use, of regular and harmful use, and of other behavioral health problems associated with use.

Route of administration: The way a drug is taken into the body. Drugs are most commonly taken by eating, drinking, inhaling, injecting, snorting, or smoking.


Self-medication: The use of a substance to lessen the negative effects of stress, anxiety, or other mental disorders (or side effects of their pharmacotherapy) without the guidance of a health care provider. Self-medication may lead to addiction and other drug- or alcohol-related problems.

Serotonin: A neurotransmitter involved in a broad range of effects on perception, movement, and emotions. Serotonin and its receptors are the targets of most hallucinogens.

Stigma: A set of negative attitudes and beliefs that motivate people to fear and discriminate against other people. Many people do not understand that addiction is a disorder just like other chronic disorders. For these reasons, they frequently attach more stigma to it. Stigma, whether perceived or real, often fuels myths and misconceptions, and can influence choices. It can impact attitudes about seeking treatment, reactions from family and friends, behavioral health education and awareness, and the likelihood that someone will not seek or remain in treatment.

Substance use disorder (SUD): A medical illness caused by disordered use of a substance or substances. According to the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), SUDs are characterized by clinically significant impairments in health, social function, and impaired control over substance use and are diagnosed through assessing cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms. An SUD can range from mild to severe.


THC: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; the main mind-altering ingredient in marijuana.

Tolerance: A condition in which higher doses of a drug are required to achieve the desired effect.


Vaping: Inhaling the aerosol or vapor from an electronic cigarette, e-vaporizer, or other device.

Ventral striatum: An area of the brain that is part of the basal ganglia and includes the nucleus accumbens; dopamine is released here in the presence of salient stimuli and in response to physically rewarding activities such as eating, sex, and taking drugs, and this process is a key factor behind the desire to repeat the behaviors associated with these rewarding activities.

Ventral tegmental area: An area in the brainstem that contains dopamine neurons that make up a key part of the brain reward system, which also includes the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.


Withdrawal: Symptoms that can occur after long-term use of a drug is reduced or stopped; these symptoms occur if tolerance to a substance has occurred, and vary according to substance. Withdrawal symptoms can include negative emotions such as stress, anxiety, or depression, as well as physical effects such as nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, and cramping, among others. Withdrawal symptoms often lead a person to use the substance again.


    Innovation & Impact Summit

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Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, 4 Volume Set, 9th Edition

List of Associate Editors x

List of Contributors xi

Preface to the Ninth Edition xxi

Preface to the First Edition xxii

Volume 1

Part 1 Foundations of Dermatology

1 History of Dermatology 1.1
Nick J. Levell

2 Structure and Function of the Skin 2.1
John A. McGrath and Jouni Uitto

3 Histopathology of the Skin: General Principles 3.1
Eduardo Calonje with a contribution from Balbir S. Bhogal (Immunofluorescence techniques)

4 Diagnosis of Skin Disease 4.1
Ian H. Coulson Emma C. Benton embed youtube video in constant contact Stephanie Ogden

5 Epidemiology of Skin Disease 5.1
Hywel C. Williams

6 Health Economics and Skin Disease 6.1
Matthias Augustin and Magdalene Krensel

7 Genetics and the Skin 7.1
John A. McGrath

8 Inflammation Immunology and Allergy 8.1
Martin Steinhoff

9 Photobiology 9.1
Antony R. Young

10 Cutaneous Response to Injury and Wound Healing 10.1
Edel A. O’Toole

11 Psychological and Social Impact of Long-term Dermatological Conditions 11.1
Christine Bundy and Lis Cordingley

12 Adverse Immunological Reactions to Drugs 12.1
Michael R. Ardern‐Jones

13 Topical Drug Delivery 13.1
Richard H. Guy

14 Clinical Pharmacology 14.1
Catherine H. Smith

Part 2 Management

15 Principles of Holistic Management of Skin Disease 15.1
Sam Gibbs

16 Principles of Measurement and Assessment in Dermatology 16.1
Andrew Y. Finlay

17 Principles of Evidence‐based Dermatology 17.1
Michael Bigby and Hywel C. Williams

18 Principles of Topical Therapy 18.1
John Berth‐Jones

19 Principles of Systemic Therapy 19.1
Michael J. Tidman and Catherine H. Smith

20 Principles of Skin Surgery 20.1
S. Walayat Hussain Richard J. Motley and Timothy S. Wang

21 Principles of Phototherapy 21.1
Kevin McKenna and Sally Ibbotson

22 Principles of Photodynamic Therapy 22.1
Sally Ibbotson and Kevin McKenna

23 Principles of Cutaneous Laser Therapy 23.1
Vishal Madan and Richard J. Barlow

24 Principles of Radiotherapy 24.1
Charles G. Kelly and John Frew

Part 3 Infections and Infestations

25 Viral Infections 25.1
Jane C. Sterling

26 Bacterial Infections 26.1
Roderick J. Hay and Rachael Morris‐Jones

27 Mycobacterial Infections 27.1
Victoria M. Yates and Stephen L. Walker

28 Leprosy 28.1
Diana N. J. Lockwood

Introduction to Chapters 29 and 30: Global Overview of Sexually Transmitted Infections 29.1
George R. Kinghorn and Rasha Omer

29 Syphilis and Congenital Syphilis 29.3
George R. Kinghorn and Rasha Omer

30 Other Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases 30.1
George R. Kinghorn Aparna Briggs and Nadi K. Gupta

31 HIV and the Skin 31.1
Christopher B. Alabama power bill pay and Vincent Piguet

32 Fungal Infections 32.1
Roderick J. Hay and H. Ruth Ashbee

33 Parasitic Diseases 33.1
Christopher Downing and Stephen Tyring

34 Arthropods 34.1
Gentiane Monsel Pascal Delaunay and Olivier Chosidow


Volume 2

Part 4 Inflammatory Dermatoses

35 Psoriasis and Related Disorders 35.1
A. David Burden and Brian Boa credit card online login Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris 36.1
Anthony C. Chu

37 Lichen Planus and Lichenoid Disorders 37.1
Vincent Piguet Stephen M. Breathnach and Laurence Le Cleach

38 Graft‐versus‐host Disease 38.1
Tanya N. Basu

39 Eczematous Disorders 39.1
John R. Ingram

40 Seborrhoeic Dermatitis 40.1
Sarah Wakelin

41 Atopic Eczema 41.1
Michael R. Ardern‐Jones Carsten Flohr Nick J. Reynolds and Colin A. Holden

42 Urticaria 42.1
Clive E. H. Grattan and Alexander M. Marsland

43 Recurrent Angio‐oedema without Weals 43.1
Clive E. H. Grattan and Marcus Maurer

44 Urticarial Vasculitis 44.1
Elena Borzova and Clive E. H. Grattan

45 Autoinflammatory Diseases Presenting in the Skin 45.1
Dan Lipsker Clive E. H. Grattan and Christopher R. Lovell

46 Mastocytosis 46.1
Clive E. H. Grattan and Deepti H. Radia

47 Reactive Inflammatory Erythemas 47.1
Malcolm Rustin and Rino Cerio

48 Adamantiades–Behçet Disease 48.1
Christos C. Zouboulis

49 Neutrophilic Dermatoses 49.1
Anthony D. Ormerod and Philip J. Hampton

50 Immunobullous Diseases 50.1
Enno Schmidt and Richard Groves

51 Lupus Erythematosus 51.1
Mark Goodfield Jan Dutz and Collette McCourt

52 Antiphospholipid Syndrome 52.1
Mark Goodfield and Shyamal Wahie

53 Dermatomyositis 53.1
Patrick Gordon and Daniel Creamer

54 Mixed Connective Tissue Disease 54.1
Mark Goodfield

55 Dermatological Manifestations of Rheumatoid Disease 55.1
Mark Goodfield

56 Systemic Sclerosis 56.1
Catherine H. Orteu and Christopher P. Denton

57 Morphoea and Allied Scarring and Sclerosing Inflammatory Dermatoses 57.1
Catherine H. Orteu

Part 5 Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Affecting the Skin

58 Cutaneous Amyloidoses 58.1
Stephan Schreml

59 Cutaneous Mucinoses 59.1
Franco Rongioletti

60 Cutaneous Porphyrias 60.1
Robert P. E. Sarkany

61 Calcification of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue 61.1
Johnny Bourke

62 Xanthomas and Abnormalities of Lipid Metabolism and Storage 62.1
Paul D. Flynn

63 Nutritional Disorders Affecting the Skin 63.1
Derek H. Chu Melinda V. Jen and Albert C. Yan

64 Skin Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus 64.1
Johnny Bourke

Part 6 Genetic Disorders Involving the Skin

65 Inherited Disorders of Cornification 65.1
Vinzenz Oji Dieter Metze and Heiko Traupe

66 Inherited Acantholytic Disorders 66.1
Mozheh Zamiri and Colin S. Munro

67 Ectodermal Dysplasias 67.1
Peter Itin

68 Inherited Hair Disorders 68.1
Eli Sprecher

69 Genetic Defects of Nails and Nail Growth 69.1
Adam Rubin and Amy S. Paller

70 Genetic Disorders of Pigmentation 70.1
Alain Taïeb Fanny Morice‐Picard and Khaled Ezzedine

71 Genetic Blistering Diseases 71.1
John A. McGrath

72 Genetic Disorders of Collagen Elastin and Dermal Matrix 72.1
Nigel Burrows

73 Disorders Affecting Cutaneous Vasculature 73.1
Anne Dompmartin Nicole Revencu Laurence M. Boon and Miikka Vikkula

74 Genetic Disorders of Adipose Tissue 74.1
George W. M. Millington

75 Congenital Naevi and Other Developmental Abnormalities Affecting the Skin 75.1
Veronica A. Kinsler and Neil J. Sebire

76 Chromosomal Disorders 76.1
Alan D. Irvine and Jemima E. Mellerio

77 Poikiloderma Syndromes 77.1
Alan D. Irvine and Jemima E. Mellerio

78 DNA Repair Disorders with Cutaneous Features 78.1
Hiva Fassihi

79 Syndromes with Premature Ageing 79.1
Alan D. Irvine and Jemima E. Mellerio

80 Hamartoneoplastic Syndromes 80.1
Alan D. Irvine and Jemima E. Mellerio

81 Inherited Metabolic Diseases 81.1
Andrew Morris

82 Inherited Immunodeficiency 82.1
Tim Niehues and Andrew R. Gennery

Part 7 Psychological Sensory and Neurological Disorders and the Skin

83 Pruritus Prurigo and Lichen Simplex 83.1
Sonja Ständer and Malcolm Greaves

84 Mucocutaneous Pain Syndromes 84.1
Joanna M. Zakrzewska and Anthony Bewley

85 Neurological Conditions Affecting the Skin 85.1
David J. Eedy

86 Psychodermatology and Psychocutaneous Disease 86.1
Anthony Bewley and Ruth E. Taylor


Volume 3

Part 8 Skin Disorders Associated with Specific Cutaneous Structures

87 Acquired Disorders of Epidermal Keratinization 87.1
Anthony C. Chu and Fernanda Teixeira

88 Acquired Pigmentary Disorders 88.1
Nanja van Geel and Reinhart Speeckaert

89 Acquired Disorders of Hair 89.1
Andrew G. Messenger Rodney D. Sinclair Paul Farrant and David A. R. de Berker

90 Acne 90.1
Alison M. Layton E. Anne Eady and Christos C. Zouboulis

91 Rosacea 91.1
Frank C. Powell

92 Hidradenitis Suppurativa 92.1
Nemesha Desai Hessel H. van der Zee and Gregor B. E. Jemec

93 Other Acquired Disorders of the Pilosebaceous Unit 93.1
Roderick J. Hay Rachael Morris‐Jones and Gregor B. E. Jemec

94 Disorders of the Sweat Glands 94.1
Ian H. Coulson and Niall J. E. Wilson

95 Acquired Disorders of the Nails and Nail Unit 95.1
David A. R. de Berker Bertrand Richert and Robert Baran

96 Acquired Disorders of Dermal Connective Tissue 96.1
Christopher R. Lovell

97 Granulomatous Disorders of the Skin 97.1
Johnny Bourke

98 Sarcoidosis 98.1
Joaquim Marcoval and Juan Mañá

99 Panniculitis 99.1
Luis Requena

100 Other Acquired Disorders of Subcutaneous Fat 100.1
Amy Y.‐Y. Chen and Amit Garg

Part 9 Vascular Disorders Involving the Skin

101 Purpura 101.1
Tabi A. Leslie

102 Cutaneous Vasculitis 102.1
Nick J. Levell and Chetan Mukhtyar

103 Dermatoses Resulting from Disorders of the Veins and Arteries 103.1
Portia C. Goldsmith

104 Ulceration Resulting from Que paso con el banco wells fargo of the Veins and Arteries 104.1
Jürg Hafner

105 Disorders of the Lymphatic Vessels 105.1
Peter S. Mortimer and Kristiana Gordon

106 Flushing and Blushing 106.1
Síona Ní Raghallaigh and Frank C. Powell

Part 10 Skin Disorders Associated with Specific Sites Sex and Age

107 Dermatoses of the Scalp 107.1
Paul Farrant Megan Mowbray and Rodney D. Sinclair

108 Dermatoses of the External Ear 108.1
Cameron Kennedy

109 Dermatoses of the Eye Eyelids and Eyebrows 109.1
Valerie P. J. Saw and Jonathan N. Leonard

110 Dermatoses of the Oral Cavity and Lips 110.1
Crispian Scully

111 Dermatoses of the Male Genitalia 111.1
Christopher B. Bunker and William M. Porter

112 Dermatoses of the Female Genitalia 112.1
Fiona Lewis

113 Dermatoses of Perineal and Perianal Skin 113.1
Eleanor Mallon

114 Cutaneous Complications of Stomas and Fistulae 114.1
Calum Lyon

115 Dermatoses of Pregnancy 115.1
Samantha Vaughan Jones

116 Dermatoses of the Neonate 116.1
David G. Paige

117 Dermatoses and Haemangiomas of Infancy 117.1
Elisabeth M. Higgins and Mary T. Glover


Volume 4

Part 11 Skin Disorders Caused by External Agents

118 Benign Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Drugs 118.1
Michael R. Ardern‐Jones and Haur Yueh Lee

119 Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Drugs 119.1
Sarah Walsh Haur Yueh Lee and Daniel Creamer

120 Cutaneous Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy 120.1
Louise Best grocery cash back credit card and Janakan Natkunarajah

121 Dermatoses Induced by Illicit Drugs 121.1
Daniel Creamer and Michael Gossop

122 Dermatological Manifestations of Metal Poisoning 122.1
Rabindranath Nambi

123 Mechanical Injury to the Skin 123.1
Saqib J. Bashir and Ai‐Lean Chew

124 Pressure Injury and Pressure Ulcers 124.1
Robyn Evans Carol Ott and Madhuri Reddy

125 Cutaneous Reactions to Cold and Heat 125.1
Saqib J. Bashir and Ai‐Lean Chew

126 Burns and Heat Injury 126.1
Marc G. Jeschke

127 Cutaneous Photosensitivity Diseases 127.1
Sally Ibbotson and Robert Dawe

128 Allergic Contact Dermatitis 128.1
Mark Wilkinson and David Orton

129 Irritant Contact Dermatitis 129.1
Jonathan M. L. White

130 Occupational Dermatology 130.1
Jonathan M. L. White

131 Stings and Bites 131.1
Stephen Tyring and Christopher Downing

Part 12 Neoplastic Proliferative and Infiltrative Disorders Affecting the Skin

132 Benign Melanocytic Proliferations and Melanocytic Naevi 132.1
Irene Stefanaki Christina Antoniou and Alexander Stratigos

133 Benign Keratinocytic Acanthomas and Proliferations 133.1
Vishal Madan and John T. Lear

134 Cutaneous Cysts 134.1
John T. Lear and Vishal Madan

135 Lymphocytic Infiltrates 135.1
Fiona Child and Sean J. Whittaker

136 Cutaneous Histiocytoses 136.1
Thai Hoa Tran Elena Pope and Sheila Weitzman

137 Soft‐tissue Tumours and Tumour‐like Conditions 137.1
Eduardo Calonje

138 Tumours of Skin Appendages 138.1
Eduardo Calonje

139 Kaposi Sarcoma 139.1
Kenneth Y. Tsai

140 Cutaneous Lymphomas 140.1
Sean J. Whittaker and Fiona Child

141 Basal Cell Carcinoma 141.1
Vishal Madan and John T. Lear

142 Squamous Cell Carcinoma and its Precursors 142.1
Girish Gupta Vishal Madan and John T. Lear

143 Melanoma 143.1

Melanoma Clinicopathology 143.2
Jean Jacques Grob and Caroline Gaudy‐Marqueste

Melanoma Surgery 143.23
Kelly B. Cha Timothy M. Johnson and Alison B. Durham

Systemic Treatment of Melanoma 143.28
Reinhard Dummer and Simone M. Goldinger

144 Dermoscopy of Melanoma and Naevi 144.1
Natalia Jaimes and Ashfaq A. Marghoob

145 Merkel Cell Carcinoma 145.1
Jürgen C. Becker David Schrama and Axel zur Hausen

146 Skin Cancer in the Immunocompromised Patient 146.1
Catherine A. Harwood Jane M. McGregor and Charlotte M. Proby

Part 13 Systemic Disease and the Skin

147 Cutaneous Markers of Internal Malignancy 147.1
Lennart Emtestam and Karin Sartorius

148 The Skin and Disorders of the Haematopoietic and Immune Systems 148.1
Robert Gniadecki

149 The Skin and Endocrine Disorders 149.1
Ralf Paus

150 The Skin and Disorders of the Heart 150.1
Sonja Molin and Thomas Ruzicka

151 The Skin and Disorders of the Respiratory System 151.1
Sonja Molin and Thomas Ruzicka

152 The Skin and Disorders of the Digestive System 152.1
Sonja Molin and Thomas Ruzicka

153 The Skin and Disorders of the Kidney and Urinary Tract 153.1
Sonja Molin and Thomas Ruzicka

154 The Skin and Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System 154.1
Christopher R. Lovell

Part signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation Aesthetic Dermatology

155 Skin Ageing 155.1
Dana L. Sachs Gary Fisher and John J. Voorhees

156 Cosmeceuticals 156.1
Eubee Koo Alexandra B. Kimball and Molly Wanner

157 Soft Tissue Augmentation (Fillers) 157.1
Berthold Rzany

158 Aesthetic Uses of Botulinum Toxins 158.1
Nicholas J. Lowe

159 Chemical Peels 159.1
Chee‐Leok Goh and Joyce Teng Ee Lim

160 Lasers and Energy‐based Devices 160.1
Nazanin Saedi and Christopher B. Zachary


signs of life in the usa 9th edition citation

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