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California, America's most populous state, was the first to order all residents to stay home. Others quickly followed suit. “This is not a permanent state, this. This article relates the history of how the original 13 British colonies in North America became the first 13 states of the United States of. Skip to main content. U.S. flag. An official website of the United States government. Here's how you know. Dot gov. Official websites use.gov.

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Articles of Confederation, 1777–1781

The Articles of Confederation served as the written document that established the functions of the national government of the United States after it declared independence from Great Britain. It established a weak central government that mostly, but not entirely, prevented the individual states from conducting their own foreign diplomacy.

The Articles of Confederation

The Albany Plan an earlier, pre-independence attempt at joining the colonies into a larger union, had failed in part because the individual colonies td bank online customer service phone number concerned about losing power to first state in america another central insitution. As the American Revolution gained momentum, however, many political leaders saw the advantages of a centralized government that could coordinate the Revolutionary War. In June of 1775, the New York provincial Congress sent a plan of union to the Continental Congress, which, like the Albany Plan, continued to recognize the authority of the British Crown.

Some Continental Congress delegates had also informally discussed plans for a more permanent union than the Continental Congress, whose status was temporary. Benjamin Franklin had drawn up a plan for “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.” While some delegates, such as Thomas Jefferson, supported capital one bayside hours Franklin’s proposal, many others were strongly opposed. Franklin introduced his plan before Congress on July 21, but stated that it should be viewed as a draft for when Congress was interested in reaching a more formal proposal. Congress tabled the plan.

Following the Declaration of Independence, the members of the Continental Congress realized it would be necessary to set up a national government. Congress began to discuss the form this government would take on July 22, what is the capital of wyoming cheyenne disagreeing on a number of issues, including whether representation and voting would be proportional or state-by-state. The disagreements delayed final discussions of confederation until October of 1777. By then, the British capture of Philadelphia had made the issue more urgent. Delegates finally formulated the Articles of Confederation, in which they agreed to state-by-state voting and proportional state tax burdens based on land values, though they left the issue of state claims to western lands unresolved. Congress sent the Articles to the states for ratification at the end of November. Most delegates realized that the Articles were a flawed compromise, but believed that it was better first state in america an absence of formal national government.

On December 16, 1777, Virginia was the first state to ratify. Other states ratified during the early months of 1778. When Congress reconvened in June of 1778, the delegates learned that Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey refused to ratify the Articles. The Articles required unanimous approval from the states. These smaller states wanted other states to relinquish their western land claims boney m belfast lyrics before they would ratify the Articles. New Jersey and Delaware eventually agreed to the conditions of the Articles, with New Jersey ratifying on Nov 20, 1778, and Delaware on Feb 1, 1779. This left Maryland as the last remaining holdout.

Irked by Maryland’s recalcitrance, several other state governments passed resolutions endorsing the formation of a national government without the state of Maryland, but other politicians such as Congressman Thomas Burke of North Carolina persuaded their governments to refrain from doing so, arguing that without unanimous approval of the new Confederation, the new country would remain weak, divided, and open first state in america future foreign intervention and manipulation.

Meanwhile, in 1780, British forces began to conduct raids on Maryland communities first state in america in the Chesapeake Bay. Alarmed, the state government wrote to the French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne asking for French naval assistance. Luzerne wrote back, urging the m and t bank online check deposit of Maryland to ratify the Articles of Confederation. Marylanders were given further incentive to ratify when Virginia agreed to relinquish its western land claims, and so the Maryland legislature ratified the Articles of Confederation on March 1, 1781.

French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne

The Continental Congress voted on Jan 10, 1781, to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs; on Aug 10 of that year, it elected Robert R. Livingston as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. The Secretary’s duties air pump bb gun rifle corresponding with U.S. representatives abroad and with ministers of foreign powers. The Secretary was also charged with transmitting Congress’ instructions to U.S. agents abroad and was authorized to attend sessions of Congress. A further Act of Feb 22, 1782, allowed first state in america Secretary to ask and respond to questions during sessions of the Continental Congress.

The Articles created a sovereign, national government, and, as such, limited the rights of the states to conduct their own diplomacy and foreign policy. However, chase bank bank name this proved difficult to enforce, as the national government could not prevent the state of Georgia from pursuing its own independent policy regarding Spanish Florida, attempting to occupy disputed territories and threatening war if Spanish officials did not work to curb Indian attacks or refrain from harboring escaped slaves. Nor could the Confederation government prevent the landing of convicts that the British Government continued to export to its former colonies. In addition, the Articles did not allow Congress sufficient authority to enforce first state in america provisions of the 1783 Treaty of Paris that allowed British creditors to sue debtors for pre-Revolutionary debts, an unpopular clause that many state governments chose to ignore. Consequently, British forces continued to occupy forts in the Great Lakes region. These problems, combined with the Confederation government’s ineffectual response to Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts, convinced national leaders that a more powerful central government was necessary. This led to the Constitutional Convention that formulated the current Constitution of the United States.

Источник: https://history.state.gov/milestones/1776-1783/articles

 
The Separation of Church and State from the American Revolution to the Early Republic

Christine Leigh Heyrman
Department of History, University of Delaware
©National Humanities Center


James MadisonIn 1773, it came to first state in america notice of a weedy, bookish, young Virginian that some Baptists were languishing in a nearby jail. For many years before, as he well knew, magistrates had meted out fines and prison sentences to religious dissenters from the colony’s Anglican establishment. But this episode struck a nerve, prompting the young gentleman to condemn what he called the “diabolical, hell-conceived principle of persecution.” Thomas JeffersonPerhaps that was because it occurred close to his family’s plantation, or perhaps, because the young man had recently graduated from Princeton, where he had been steeped in enlightened learning, including the ideas of John Locke. Whatever the reason, the imprisonment of local Baptists marked a turning point in the life of James Madison. It steered him toward a career in politics as well as a lifelong partnership with his fellow Virginian, Thomas Jefferson. Over the course of many decades devoted to public service (including a combined 16 years in the presidency), these two men would decisively shape the relationship between church and state in the new American republic.

“A Memorial and Remonstrance”
James Madison, 1785Their earliest collaboration followed the framing of Virginia’s state constitution in 1776, which exempted dissenters like the Baptists from paying taxes to support the Anglican clergy. That did not go far enough to satisfy Jefferson, so in 1779 he presented a bill to the state legislature guaranteeing full religious liberty to all Virginians—not merely tax exemptions to non-Anglicans—only to meet with resistance from those who deemed his measure too radical. Among them was Patrick Henry, who countered by proposing a “general assessment” on all citizens to support Christianity itself as the established religion of Virginia. “What we have to do I think is devoutly to pray for his [Henry’s] death,” Jefferson joked in a letter to Madison. By 1785, San jose temperature right now was pursuing another strategy: he composed a petition to the Virginia legislature entitled “A Memorial and Remonstrance.”

Following Locke, Madison argued that to promote any religion was outside the proper scope of limited government. Even for Virginia’s government to sponsor all Christian religions, as Henry proposed, would establish a dangerous precedent, for “Who does not see that the same authority, which can establish Christianity, in exclusion of all other Religions, may establish with the same ease any particular sect of Christians, in exclusion of all other Sects?” Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia (1785) echoes a similar conviction: “The legitimate powers of government extend to such acts only as are injurious to others. But it does me no injury for my neighbor to say that there or twenty gods or no God. It neither picks my pocket nor breaks my leg.”

That reasoning persuaded many Virginians, Anglicans and evangelical Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists, to affix their signatures to Madison’s petition, thus dooming Henry’s general assessment scheme. And in 1786, the Virginia legislature snuffed out the last vestiges of the state’s religious establishment by passing Jefferson’s bill for religious freedom. It provided that “…no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever…nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinion in matters of religion, and that the same shall in no wise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities.”

It marked a signal victory for Madison and Jefferson. In their view, civil governments should not only tolerate all forms of religious belief—neither penalizing nor encouraging any particular faith—but also uphold the principle, as Jefferson’s bill declared, “Our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions, any more than our opinions in physics or geometry.” Specifically, candidates for public office should not be judged based on whether they “profess or renounce this or that religious opinion.” But rougher sledding lay ahead for making their ideals of religious freedom those, which would guide an entire nation.

The first challenge loomed with the meeting of the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in the spring of 1787. At that time, nearly all state constitutions required office-holders to swear to their belief in either the divine inspiration of the Old and New Testaments or the truth of Protestant Christianity, and one-third of the states still levied taxes to support Christian churches. Yet the delegates at Philadelphia wished to avoid protracted controversy over religious matters—which, in any case, most believed should be left to the states—and hoped to reach consensus on the Constitution as quickly as possible. So the Convention spent little time debating the proposed Constitution’s two brief provisions regarding religion, one (in deference to the Quakers) allowing those assuming federal posts to “affirm” rather than to swear an oath of office, the first state in america barring religious tests for those officeholders. More surprisingly, none of the delegates objected that the proposed Constitution did not refer to God. That omission marked a departure from the founding documents of 1776: the Declaration of Independence invokes the “Creator” in setting forth the basis of human rights and the Articles of Confederation alludes to the “Great Governor of the World.”

As the members of the Constitutional Convention expected, the matter of religion proved more contentious in the ratification debates, which followed. Some Anti-Federalist critics of the proposed Constitution warned that abolishing religious tests would allow Jews, Catholics, and Quakers—even “pagans, deists, and Mahometans [Muslims]”—to hold federal office, perhaps even to dominate the new national government. And many evangelical religious leaders, like the group of Presbyterian elders who took their concerns to George Washington in 1789, objected that the Constitution failed to acknowledge “the only true God and Jesus Christ, whom he hath sent.” (Washington evenly replied, “The path of true piety is so plain as to require but little political direction.”)

It was difficult for the proponents of ratification to address Jefferson’s reservations. Thanks to Madison’s frequent letters to Paris, where Jefferson was serving as ambassador, he kept current with the debates over the Constitution and pressed for adding a bill of rights that would explicitly guarantee both full religious freedom and the separation of church and state. In the end, Madison agreed, and the First Amendment, added to the Constitution in 1791 as one of ten amendments comprising the Bill of Rights, opens with the declaration that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.”
       
But (to indulge in a riot of understatement), the adoption of the First Amendment did not settle the matter. While unequivocally affirming liberty of conscience as a fundamental private right, it pronounced ambiguously on the separation of church and state and the relationship between religion and society. Did the First Amendment’s restrictions concerning religious establishments mean that Congress—as well as the federal executive or judiciary—might encourage religion in ways that did not disadvantage any faith groups? Could the state governments (many of which still had religious establishments in 1791) continue to mandate taxpayer support for Christianity in general or for any religious denomination in particular? And to what extent could religious ideas and observances figure in the conduct of civic life? Today those questions loom large in the United States, as controversies rage over prayer and the teaching of evolution in the public schools, the posting of the Ten Commandments in courtrooms, and the launching of “faith-based initiatives” by the executive branch. 

But the founding generation could not foresee our concerns: what consumed them was answering the needs of their present and avoiding the pitfalls of the past. Those steeped in the ideals of the Enlightenment were determined to ensure that the religious wars which had wracked Europe would not engulf the new republic and that its clergy and churches would not acquire the wealth and influence which would enable them to play a prominent role in civil government. At the same time, many Americans who cleaved to Christian orthodoxy—especially those who dissented from former or current religious establishments—were determined to ensure that no denomination would enjoy the unfair advantage of government support. 

Both groups supported the separation of church and state, with Virginia’s bill for religious freedom providing the model. In the decades after 1790, all of the states abolished taxpayer support for religion and religious tests for office-holders, and state courts, deeming that churches were private institutions, ruled that religious bodies could not receive public funding to provide education or poor relief. Even so, those changes proceeded slowly: religious tests persisted in some states until well into the nineteenth century, and religious establishments lingered in New England, with Massachusetts maintaining its Congregationalist “Standing Order” until 1833. 

Designating the appropriate role of religion in the early republic’s civic life also presented a challenge. Most of the First state in america believed that religion would promote public morality, which in turn would strengthen both republican society and government in the United States. That being the case, what constituted an appropriate inclusion of religious ideas and rituals in the conduct of civic life? In wrestling with that question, presidents from Washington to Madison played a delicate game of brinksmanship. All of them strove to keep religion from becoming the fodder for controversy by affirming that expressions of spirituality had a legitimate place in the public square while also upholding what they regarded as a due separation between church and state.

In their efforts to strike the right balance, George Washington and John Adams proclaimed national days of thanksgiving and fasting during their administrations and voiced no objections to the appointment of salaried Congressional chaplains, who opened legislative sessions with prayers. In their public addresses, too, they often expressed confidence in the power of divine providence to guide the new republic. On the other hand, a treaty negotiated with the Muslim Barbary States during Washington’s administration declared, “As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian religion…it has in itself no character of enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of the Mussulmen [Muslims].” Similarly, Thomas Jefferson, even though he refused to proclaim national thanksgivings and fasts during his presidency, made efforts to conciliate orthodox Christians. He approved bills authorizing Congressional chaplains and granting financial aid to Protestant missions for Indians in the Pet insurance usaa cost valley; he regularly attended Sabbath worship services conducted in Congress, and, in his second Inaugural Address, called upon Americans to join him in prayer. Even James Madison, who objected to the appointment of chaplains to both Congress and the military, relented during the darkest days of War of 1812 and declared a national day of fasting. 

In short, while the Founders spoke with one voice in affirming religious liberty as an inalienable private right, it 1st grade coin worksheets hard to discern a consensus among them about how to define the appropriate separation of church and state and the proper role for religion in civic life. Indeed, the only common intent among the Founders may well have been to avoid pronouncing too clearly on those matters, because religion, like slavery, held the potential to become a deeply divisive issue in the fragile union they had hopefully named the “United States of America.” The federal government faced the daunting challenges of paying off the war debt, contending with Indian resistance to westward expansion, and fending off the efforts of Spain, France, and Britain to strengthen their empires in North America. With a national agenda so crowded with pressing demands, the course of prudence dictated leaving religious matters mainly to the states.

Then, too, some of the Founders expected that the passage of time would resolve the religious divisions among Americans and fulfill their vision of the new political order in which private religious convictions would play no part in determining the fitness of individuals for public office. In Jefferson’s view, the rising generation, once sustained by complete liberty of conscience, would abandon religions based on biblical revelation in favor of those founded on reason. “There is not a young man now living in the United States,” he predicted in 1822, “who will not die a Unitarian.”

But in fact, the withering of religious establishments in the wake of the American Revolution proved to be the making of bible-based, evangelical Christianity. By the middle decades of the nineteenth century, only a minority of Americans adhered to Unitarianism and other rationalist religions, but hundreds of thousands had embraced evangelical Christianity. And those revival converts of the Second Great Awakening were investing their energies in an ever-expanding number of voluntary associations promoting moral and social reform, which immeasurably strengthened the influence of evangelical Protestants on public opinion and political culture in the United States. Please also see: “Evangelicalism, Revivalism, and the Second Great Awakening,” by Donald Scott and “Deism and the Founding of the United States,” by Darren Staloff.


Guiding Student Discussions

While many of the Founders discovered to their dismay that religion was the “third rail” of early national politics, teachers can tackle this topic without fear of being fried. In my experience, the best approach is to acquaint students with the broad historical context, to introduce them to a selection of sources, and then to raise probing questions as class discussion ensues about how the principal architects of the early republic envisioned both the ideal relationship between church and state and the ideal relationship between religion and society. Drawing that latter distinction will help to sharpen students’ thinking and will also foster more productive exchanges than asking whether “America was founded as a Christian nation,” a question as vague as it is polarizing. Please also see: “Church and State in British North America,” by Christine Leigh Heyrman.

Targeting sources for class discussion is “easy cheese,” so you need only to choose among many choice options to ensure a delicious exchange of ideas. First, there’s Madison’s “Memorial and Remonstrance,” best when paired with Jefferson’s “Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom,” because both will help students to appreciate why some contemporaries regarded their religious liberty as a radical innovation. Be sure to draw students’ attention to how shrewdly Madison framed his arguments to appeal to both “enlightened” and evangelical Virginians. To bring class discussion up to the present, ask your students to reflect on the ways in which candidates’ religious beliefs now figure in electoral campaigns and influence their prospects winning for voter approval.

Then there’s the gourmet treat of Jefferson’s letter to the Danbury Baptists, the source of his now famous and much-debated metaphor, “a wall of separation between church and state.” Despite his unorthodox religious beliefs, Jefferson’s efforts to widen the scope of religious liberty won him support from many evangelical dissenters in the early republic, and on New Year’s Day of 1802, a delegation of New England Baptists turned up at the White House and presented him with (I am not making this up) a 1,235 pound cheese. To repay their compliment, Jefferson went public with a letter which he had written in response to the Danbury Baptist Association in Connecticut, which had earlier congratulated him on being elected to the presidency and complained about their being oppressed by the state’s Congregationalist establishment. Alluding to the First Amendment, Jefferson wrote “…I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should “make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,” thus building a wall of separation between Church & State.”

Recovered deletions from Jefferson’s at and t wifi letter to the Danbury BaptistsUntil the end of the twentieth century, historians and jurists (including Supreme Court justices deciding landmark cases) understood Jefferson’s letter to the Danbury Baptists as a principled affirmation of his views on church-state relations. But in 1998, an FBI laboratory analysis revealed what Jefferson had omitted from his first draft in the course of composing his final draft. Those now-recovered deletions have convinced some scholars that Jefferson’s main motive in writing to the Danbury Baptists was to outfox his Federalist political opponents, who charged chase customer care email with being “a howling atheist,” rather than to articulate his intellectual convictions about the separation of church and state. And some conservative jurists and politicians have claimed even more, construing the FBI findings as evidence that Jefferson did not intend to erect first merchants bank hammond insurmountable barrier between church and state.

Let your students decide, once they’ve tucked into the original and final drafts of Jefferson’s letter. They’ll get an intellectual jolt from reading over his shoulder, and you might engage them in discussing why some conservative evangelicals have come to hold views of church-state relations, which differ significantly from those of the Baptists back in the day, when they were gifting big cheeses to the likes of Thomas Jefferson.


Historians Debate

The debate swirling around Jefferson’s letter to the Danbury Baptists reflects a wider controversy about the intentions of the Founders still being waged among scholars, jurists, and politicians. If you’re looking for a good place to begin or only wish to dip your toe in the ocean, turn to the scholarly slugfest featured in “Thomas Jefferson’s Letter to the Danbury Baptists: A Controversy Rejoined,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., Vol. 56, No. 4. (Oct., 1999), 775–824. And for a fresh and provocative take on the subject, check out Johann N. Neem, “Beyond the Wall: Interpreting Jefferson’s Danbury Address,” Journal of the Early Republic, Vol. 27, No. 1. (Spring, 2007), 139–154.

If you need a quick overview of the entire controversy, here’s how the debate cashes out. On one side are those who contend that the principal architects of the early republic shared a single “original intent”—which did not include building a high and impregnable “wall” between church and state. On the contrary, they argue that the Founders meant for the First Amendment neither to impose a strict separation of church and state nor to prohibit federal support for religious institutions, but only to prevent government from favoring one Christian denomination at the expense of others. For an elaboration of those arguments, see Richard John Neuhaus, The Naked Public Square: Religion and Democracy in America (1984) and Philip Hamburger, Separation of Church and State (2002).

On the other side of the debate are those who posit that most of the Founders favored a more rigorous separation of church and state—erecting a “wall” high enough to protect individual liberty of conscience and to prohibit both religious establishments and federal support for any denomination, but one low enough to allow for the expression of religious sentiments and values within the public square. Skeptical first state in america recovering any uniform “original intent” among the Founders, members of this camp also point up the diversity of the public pronouncements concerning the role of religion in the civic culture of the new United States. The best brief synthesis is Gordon S. Wood, “American Religion: The Great Retreat,” New York Review of Books, June 8, 2006, 60–63, but if you’ve got a little more time, by all means settle in with Edwin S. Gaustad, Without King, Without Prelate (2nd ed., 1993).

If you wish to delve even deeper into this timely topic, recent books that beckoned me to turn the page and to think harder are John G. West, Jr., The Politics of Reason and Revelation: Religion and Civic Life in the New Nation (1996) and Mark Douglas McGarvie, One Nation Under Law: America’s Early National Struggles to Separate Church and State (2004).

Christine Leigh Heyrman was a Fellow at the National Humanities Center in 1986–87. She holds a Ph.D. from Yale University in American Studies and is currently Professor of History in the Department of History at the University of Delaware. Dr. Heyrman is the author of Commerce and Culture: The Maritime Communities of Colonial New England, 1690–1740 [1984], Southern Cross: The Beginning of the Bible Belt [1997], which won the Bancroft Prize in 1998, and Nation of Nations: A Narrative History of the Republic, with James West Davidson, William Gienapp, Mark Lytle, and Michael Stoff [3rd ed., 1997].

Address comments or questions to Professor Heyrman through TeacherServe “Comments and Questions.”

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To cite this essay:
Heyrman, Christine Leigh. “The Separation of Church and State from the American Revolution to the Early Republic.” Divining America, TeacherServe©. National Humanities Center. DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/sepchust.htm>

 

Источник: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/sepchust.htm

The History of Policing in the United States, Part 1

By: Dr. Gary Potter

The development of policing in the United States closely followed the development of policing in England. In the early colonies policing took two forms. It was both informal and communal, which is referred to as the “Watch,” or private-for-profit policing, which is called “The Big Stick” (Spitzer, 1979).

The watch system was composed of community volunteers whose primary duty was to warn of impending danger. Boston created a night watch in 1636, New York in 1658 and Philadelphia in 1700. The night watch was not a particularly effective crime control device. Watchmen often slept or drank on duty. While the watch was theoretically voluntary, many “volunteers” were simply attempting to evade military service, were conscript forced into service by their town, or were performing watch duties as a form of punishment. Philadelphia created the first day watch in 1833 and New York instituted a day watch in 1844 as a supplement to its new municipal police force (Gaines, Kappeler, and Vaughn 1999).

Augmenting the watch system was a system of constables, official law enforcement officers, usually paid by the fee system for warrants they served. Constables had a variety of non-law enforcement functions to perform as well, including serving as land surveyors and verifying the accuracy of weights and measures. In many cities constables were given the responsibility of supervising the activities of the night watch.

These informal modalities of policing continued well after the American Revolution. It was not until the 1830s that the idea of a centralized municipal police department first emerged in the United States. In 1838, the city of Boston established the first American police force, followed by New York City in 1845, Albany, NY and Chicago in 1851, New Orleans and Cincinnati in 1853, Philadelphia in 1855, and Newark, NJ and Baltimore in 1857 (Harring 1983, Lundman 1980; Lynch 1984). By the 1880s all major U.S. cities had municipal police forces in place.

These “modern police” organizations shared similar characteristics: (1) they were publicly supported and bureaucratic in form; (2) police officers were full-time employees, not community volunteers or case-by-case fee retainers; (3) departments had permanent and fixed rules and procedures, and employment as a police officers was continuous; (4) police departments were accountable to a central governmental authority (Lundman 1980).

In the Southern states the development of American policing followed a different path. The genesis of the modern police organization in the South is the “Slave Patrol” (Platt 1982). The first formal slave patrol was created in the Carolina colonies in 1704 (Reichel 1992). Slave patrols had three primary functions: (1) to chase down, apprehend, and return to their owners, runaway slaves; (2) to provide a form of organized terror to deter slave revolts; and, (3) to maintain a form of discipline for slave-workers who were subject to summary justice, outside of the law, if they violated any plantation rules. Following the Civil War, these vigilante-style organizations evolved in modern Southern police departments primarily as a means of controlling freed slaves who were now laborers working in an agricultural caste system, and enforcing “Jim Crow” segregation laws, designed to deny freed slaves equal rights and access to the political system.

The key question, of course, is what was it about the United States in the 1830s that necessitated the development of local, centralized, bureaucratic police forces? One answer is that cities were growing. The United States was no longer a collection of small cities and rural hamlets. Urbanization was occurring at an ever-quickening pace and old informal watch and constable system was no longer adequate to control disorder. Anecdotal accounts suggest increasing crime and vice in urban centers. Mob violence, particularly violence directed at immigrants and African Americans by white youths, occurred with some frequency. Public disorder, mostly public drunkenness and sometimes prostitution, was more visible and less easily controlled in growing urban centers than it had been rural villages (Walker 1996). But evidence of an actual crime wave is lacking. So, if the modern American police force was not a direct response to crime, then what was it a response to?

More than crime, modern police forces in the United States emerged as a response to “disorder.” What constitutes social and public order depends largely on who is defining those terms, and in the cities of 19th century America they were merrick bank cc login by the mercantile interests, who through taxes and political influence supported the development of bureaucratic policing institutions. These economic interests had a greater interest in social control than crime control. Private and for profit policing was too disorganized and too crime-specific in form to fulfill these needs. The emerging commercial elites needed a mechanism to insure a stable and orderly work force, a stable and orderly environment for the conduct of business, and the maintenance of what they referred to as the “collective good” (Spitzer and Scull 1977). These mercantile interests also wanted to divest themselves of the cost of protecting their own enterprises, transferring those costs from the private sector to the state.

Complete Series:

Read Part 1
Read Part 2
Read Part 3
Read Part 4
Read Part 5
Read Part 6

Sources

Gaines, Larry. Victor Kappeler, and Joseph Vaughn, Policing in America (3rd ed.), Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing Company, 1999.

Harring, Sidney, Policing in a Class Society: The Experience of American Cities, 1865-1915, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1983.

Lundman, Robert J., Police and Policing: an Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1980.

Lynch, Michael, Class Based Justice: A History of the Origins of Policing in Albany, Albany, New York: Michael J. Hindelang Criminal Research Justice Center, 1984.

Platt, Tony, “Crime and Punishment in the United States: Immediate and Long-Term Reforms from a Marxist Perspective, Crime and Social Justice 18 (1982).

Reichel, Philip L., “The Misplaced Emphasis on Urbanization in Police Development,” Policing and Society 3 no. 1 (1992).

Spitzer, Stephen, “The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society,” Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1 (1979).

Spitzer, Stephen and Andrew Scull, “Privatization and Capitalist Development: The Case of the Private Police,” Social Problems 25, no. 1 (1977).

Walker, Samuel, The Police in America: An Introduction, New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Источник: https://ekuonline.eku.edu/blog/police-studies/the-history-of-policing-in-the-united-states-part-1/

Delaware State Quarter

Production Process: Circulating

Coin Type: Circulating

Denomination: Quarter

Authorized Mintage Maximum: N/A

Approval Date: 12/01/1997

 

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Characteristics

Obverse Description: Highlights a bust of President George Washington.

Reverse Description: The Delaware coin is the first coin released in the 50 State Quarters Program and was released on January 4, 1999. Delaware, admitted into the Union on December 7, 1787, themed the coin, The First State. This coin celebrates Caesar Rodney's historic horseback ride in 1776. President William J. Clinton was in office when this legislation was signed. Three United States Mint Directors served under President Clinton's tenure; David J. Ryder of Idaho, Philip N. Diehl of Texas, and Jay W. Johnson of Wisconsin.

Obverse Inscriptions

• UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
• LIBERTY
• IN GOD WE TRUST
• QUARTER DOLLAR

Reverse Inscriptions

• THE FIRST STATE
• DELAWARE
• 1787
• 1999
• E PLURIBUS UNUM

Mint and Mint Mark

Artist Information

Obverse
  • Designer: John Flanagan and William Cousins
Reverse
  • Designer: William Cousins

Related Information

Content last reviewed June 1, 2016 Источник: https://www.usmint.gov/coins/coin-medal-programs/50-state-quarters/delaware

10 Oldest U.S. Capitals


While the United States did not officially become a country until July 4, 1776, Europeans had been establishing various settlements in the Americas since Christopher Columbus landed in 1492. Following Columbus’ arrival, the Spanish were the first to start claiming land and building permanent settlements – the oldest state capital dates back to this time period. By the of the 17th century, English settlements were the most abundant and a majority of the oldest state capitals were founded by English explorers.

Many of these state capitals played important roles in the history of the United States, serving as sites of pivotal events that led to the American Revolution. During the Civil War, most of the capitals on this list once again were central to America’s conflict. All of the oldest U.S. capitals proudly celebrate their history and today, are some of the best tourist attractions in the country.

10. Albany, New York

Year Established as Capital: 1797 (settled in 1609)
Founder(s):  Henry Hudson
Area:  21.94 mi² (56.81 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  97,856

Albanyphoto source:  Wikimedia Commons

Albany has a history going back several centuries before becoming New York’s capital in 1797 – the city is one of the oldest surviving European settlements in the United States. The city of Albany traces its roots all the way back to 1609 when English explorer Henry Hudson claimed the area for the Dutch. A few years later, the New Netherland Company established Fort Nassau, but the fort was washed away within a few years. Eventually, in 1624 a more permanent settlement was established and named Fort Orange – this is typically considered the true beginnings of Albany as the city grew as the Dutch encouraged people to stay and cultivate the land. Albany was granted a charter recognizing it as a city in 1686, making Albany the oldest continuously chartered city in the United States.

Due to its location along the Hudson River, Albany has always been a major center of trade and transportation. This has aided in Albany’s growth over the years as waves of immigrants bank of america edd money transfer often settled in the city.


9. Raleigh, North Carolina

Year Established as Capital: 1792 (site chosen in 1788)
Founder(s):  North Carolina General Assembly
Area:  144.8 mi² (375 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  403,892

Raleighphoto source:  Flickr via James Willamor

Along with a few of the other capitals on this list, Raleigh was one of the first planned cities in the United States. In 1788, the Constitutional Convention was looking for a central location to establish a new capital  and they purchased 1,000 acres of land from Joel Lane, an early settler in the region. They decided to name their new capital Raleigh after English explorer Sir Walter Raleigh.

Although North Carolina was one a Confederate state during the American Civil War, Raleigh managed to avoid the devastating destruction that occurred in other southern capitals. Following the Civil War, Raleigh experience slow and steady economic growth and is now the second-largest city in North Carolina.


8. Frankfort, Kentucky

Year Established as Capital: 1792 (settled in 1786)
Founder(s):  General James Wilkinson
Area:  14.6 mi² (37.9 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  25,527

Frankfortphoto source:  Wikimedia Commons

English explorers first started visiting the area that would become Frankfort in the early 1750s. According to an often cited story, the name Frankfort is a shortened version of “Frank’s Ford”, after frontiersman Stephen Frank who was killed at or near the area in a skirmish with Native Americans in 1780. General James Wilkinson is considered to be the founder of Frankfort when the 100 acres of land that he bought in the area was designated as Frankfort by the Virginia legislature (Kentucky was still a part of Virginia at the time).

After Kentucky became a state in 1792, Frankfort outbid other towns to become the new capital and the first statehouse was built two years later. Although Kentucky is widely considered a Southern state today, during the Civil War, the state was initially neutral but eventually sided with the Union. Confederate troops held Frankfort captive for a month in 1862. Following the Civil War, Frankfort experienced a time of growth and in the following centuries faced several ups and downs. In more recent years, downtown Frankfort (the oldest part of the city) has been revitalized with the opening of new businesses and the renovation of many historic buildings.


7. Columbia, South Carolina

Year Established as Capital: 1786
Founder(s):  South Carolina General Assembly
Area:  134.9 mi² (349 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  129,272

Columbiaphoto source:  Wikimedia Commons

In 1786, Senator John Lewis Gervais introduced a bill that was approved by the legislature to move the capital from Charleston to a more central location. After a lot of deliberation, the legislature voted to name the new capital Columbia. After Dover, Columbia became the second planned city in the United States – commissioners designed a town of 400 blocks in a two-mile square along the Congaree River.

South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union in late 1860, setting off the events leading up to the American Civil War. Due to this, Columbia became a meeting place for many Confederate agencies and also served as a transportation center. Nearly all of Columbia was destroyed when Union forces under Major General William T. Sherman captured the city. Columbia managed to rebuild after the Civil War and is now the largest city in South Carolina.


6. Trenton, New Jersey

Year Established as Capital: 1790 (settled in 1679)
Founder(s):  The Quakers led by Mahlon Stacy
Area:  8.155 mi² (21.122 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  84,913

Trentonphoto source:  Wikimedia Commons

The Quakers established the first settlement in what would later become Trenton in 1679 – the region was known as the Falls of the Delaware at the time. By 1719, the town had changed its name to “Trent-towne” (later shortened to Trenton) in honor of William Trent, who had purchased most of the surrounding land from the Stacy family.

Trenton is probably best known for the Battle of Trenton, which took place on December 26, 1776 after General George Washington members 1st credit union crossed the Delaware and defeated the Hessian troops. After the Revolutionary War ended, Trenton briefly served as the capital of the newly formed United States in November and December of 1784. The U.S. capital was moved to a location closer to the border between the southern and northern states. Trenton was chosen as the capital of New Jersey in 1790 as the state’s legislature had already been meeting in the city.


5. Richmond, Virginia

Year Established as Capital: 1780 (founded in 1737)
Founder(s):  William Bryd II
Area:  62.5 mi² (162 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  227,032

Richmondphoto source:  Wikimedia Commons

Richmond has a deep history and is probably best known for serving as the capital of the Confederate States of American for nearly all of the American Civil War. After Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, the Confederate capital was moved from Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond because it was the second largest city ode to the west wind imagery the South at the time and was associated with the American Revolution. This put a target on Richmond’s back and a large portion of city was burned down when the Civil War ended in 1865.

A number of historical landmarks can be found in Richmond, including the Old Stone House (Richmond’s only remaining colonial home and currently the Edgar Allan Poe Museum) and the Museum of Www fidelity investments – the former White House of the Confederacy and executive mansion of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.


4. Dover, Delaware

Year Established as Capital: 1777 (founded in 1717 by William Penn)
Founder(s):  Delaware General Assembly
Area:  23.48 mi² (60.82 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  36,047

Doverphoto source:  Flickr via Ken Lund

Since Delaware became the first state in 1787, Dover is the oldest state capital when going by statehood. In 1683, the area that would eventually become Dover was selected by William Penn to become the court seat of the newly formed Kent County. Although a court house was built in 1697, Dover was not officially established until 1717 when the town was plotted around a central green.

In 1777, the capital of Delaware was moved from New Castle to Dover because it was safer and more centrally located than the first state in america capital. Although Dover is over 300 years old, it has never been been historical significant. However the Delaware convention met in a Dover tavern to ratify the Federal Constitution, making Delaware officially the first state.


3. Annapolis, Maryland

Year Established as Capital: 1694 (settled in 1649 by exiled Puritans)
Founder(s):  Sir Francis Nicholson
Area:  8.10 mi² (20.98 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  38,394

Annapolisphoto source:  Wikimedia Commons

Annapolis was first settled in 1649 by Puritans seeking religious freedom. They settled on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay and called their new home Providence. As the town grew, it was renamed Anne Arundel’s Towne for the wife of Lord Baltimore, the Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. In 1694, Royal Governor Sir Francis Nicholson moved the provincial capital from St. Mary’s City to Anne Arundel’s Towne. Nicholson renamed the new capital Annapolis after Princess Anne, who eventually became Queen of England in 1702.

Like many of the capital cities in the original 13 colonies, Annapolis was an important meeting place during the American Revolution. Annapolis is also home to most 18th century buildings in America. One of the capital’s most important buildings is the Maryland State House, which was built in 1772. The state house was where Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784, which ended the American Revolution.


2. Boston, Massachusetts

Year Established as Capital: 1630
Founder(s):  Puritans from the Massachusetts Bay Company
Area:  89.63 mi² (232.14 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  617,594

Bostonphoto source:  Wikimedia Commons

Boston is one of the most historical cities in America as it was the site of several major events that led to the founding of the United States. Prior to European settlement, early Boston was inhabited by the Massachusetts tribe of Native Americans who had lived in the area since at least 2400 BCE. European settlers initially called their new settlement Trimount for the three hills: Mount Vernon, Beacon Hill, and Pemberton Hill.

In 1630, Puritans from the Massachusetts Bay Company fled to the colonies to escape religious persecution in England. After their first settlement failed, the Puritans moved to Trimount in September 1630 and renamed their new colony Boston after their hometown in England. From the beginning, Boston was a place of rebellion against British rule, which made it the perfect spot to plan the American Revolution. Boston became the bar primi bowery of two major events that set the Revolution in motion, the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. Since then, Boston has celebrated its history and is a popular tourist destination.


1. Santa Fe, New Mexico

Year Established as Capital: 1610
Founder(s):  Pedro de Peralta
Area:  37.4 mi² (96.9 km²)
Current Population (as of 2010 Census):  67,947

photo source:  Pixabay

Founded in 1610 – over a century before the United States became a country – Santa Fe is the oldest state capital in the U.S. The Spanish Crown had occupied the “Kingdom of New Mexico” since 1540 and the first capital was located at San Juan Pueblo, about 25 miles north of Santa Fe. Don Pedro de Peralta was appointed Governor-General of the Kingdom of New Mexico in 1910 and the following year he moved the capital to Santa Fe, where it has remained for over 400 years.

In addition to being the oldest state capital, Santa Fe is home to the oldest American public building, the Palace of the Governors – it was also built in 1610 and has been continuously used since then. Santa Fe also hosts the oldest community celebration in the U.S., the Santa Fe Fiesta, which was established in 1712.


Источник: https://www.oldest.org/geography/us-capitals/

Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the Constitution

In Dover, Delaware, the U.S. Constitution is unanimously ratified by all 30 delegates to the Delaware Constitutional Convention, making Delaware the first state of the modern United States.

Less than four months before, the Constitution was signed by 37 of the original 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention meeting in Philadelphia. The Constitution was sent to the states for ratification, and, by the terms of the document, the Constitution would become binding once nine of the former 13 colonies had ratified the document. Delaware led the process, and on June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, making federal democracy the law of the land. Government under the U.S. Constitution took effect on March 4, 1789.

FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look first state in america, click here to contact us! HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate.

Источник: https://www.history.com

First state in america -

Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the Constitution

In Dover, Delaware, the U.S. Constitution is unanimously ratified by all 30 delegates to the Delaware Constitutional Convention, making Delaware the first state of the modern United States.

Less than four months before, the Constitution was signed by 37 of the original 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention meeting in Philadelphia. The Constitution was sent to the states for ratification, and, by the terms of the document, the Constitution would become binding once nine of the former 13 colonies had ratified the document. Delaware led the process, and on June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, making federal democracy the law of the land. Government under the U.S. Constitution took effect on March 4, 1789.

FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate.

Источник: https://www.history.com

List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union

Wikipedia list article

Map of the United States with names and borders of states
The order in which the original 13 states ratified the 1787 Constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the Union

A state of the United States is one of the 50 constituent entities that shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside, due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government.[1]Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia use the termcommonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

States are the primary subdivisions of the United States. They possess all powers not granted to the federal government, nor prohibited to them by the Constitution of the United States. In general, state governments have the power to regulate issues of local concern, such as: regulating intrastate commerce, running elections, creating local governments, public school policy, and non-federal road construction and maintenance. Each state has its own constitution grounded in republican principles, and government consisting of executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[2]

All states and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state is represented by two Senators, and at least one Representative, while the size of a state's House delegation depends on its total population, as determined by the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.[3] Additionally, each state is entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that elects the President of the United States and Vice President of the United States, equal to the total of Representatives and Senators in Congress from that state.[4]

Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1 of the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50. Each new state has been admitted on an equal footing with the existing states.[5]

The following table is a list of all 50 states and their respective dates of statehood. The first 13 became states in July 1776 upon agreeing to the United States Declaration of Independence, and each joined the first Union of states between 1777 and 1781, upon ratifying the Articles of Confederation, its first constitution.[6] (A separate table is included below showing AoC ratification dates.) These states are presented in the order in which each ratified the 1787 Constitution and joined the others in the new (and current) federal government. The date of admission listed for each subsequent state is the official date set by Act of Congress.[a]

List of U.S. states[edit]

State Date
(admitted or ratified)
Formed from
1  DelawareDecember 7, 1787[8]
(ratified)
Colony of Delaware[b]
2  PennsylvaniaDecember 12, 1787[10]
(ratified)
Proprietary Province of Pennsylvania
3  New JerseyDecember 18, 1787[11]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of New Jersey
4  GeorgiaJanuary 2, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Georgia
5  ConnecticutJanuary 9, 1788[12]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Connecticut
6  MassachusettsFebruary 6, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Massachusetts Bay
7  MarylandApril 28, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Proprietary Province of Maryland
8  South CarolinaMay 23, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of South Carolina
9  New HampshireJune 21, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of New Hampshire
10  VirginiaJune 25, 1788[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony and Dominion of Virginia
11  New YorkJuly 26, 1788[13]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of New York
12  North CarolinaNovember 21, 1789[14]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of North Carolina
13  Rhode IslandMay 29, 1790[8]
(ratified)
Crown Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
14  VermontMarch 4, 1791[15]
(admitted)
Vermont Republic[c]
15  KentuckyJune 1, 1792[16]
(admitted)
Virginia (nine counties in its District of Kentucky[d])
16  TennesseeJune 1, 1796[18]
(admitted)
Southwest Territory
17  OhioMarch 1, 1803[19][e]
(admitted)
Northwest Territory (part)
18  LouisianaApril 30, 1812[21]
(admitted)
Territory of Orleans
19  IndianaDecember 11, 1816
(admitted)
Indiana Territory
20  MississippiDecember 10, 1817[22]
(admitted)
Mississippi Territory
21  IllinoisDecember 3, 1818[23]
(admitted)
Illinois Territory (part)
22  AlabamaDecember 14, 1819[24]
(admitted)
Alabama Territory
23  MaineMarch 15, 1820[25]
(admitted)
Massachusetts (District of Maine[f])
24  MissouriAugust 10, 1821[26]
(admitted)
Missouri Territory (part)
25  ArkansasJune 15, 1836[27]
(admitted)
Arkansas Territory
26  MichiganJanuary 26, 1837[28]
(admitted)
Michigan Territory
27  FloridaMarch 3, 1845
(admitted)
Florida Territory
28  TexasDecember 29, 1845[29]
(admitted)
Republic of Texas
29  IowaDecember 28, 1846
(admitted)
Iowa Territory (part)
30  WisconsinMay 29, 1848[30]
(admitted)
Wisconsin Territory (part)
31  CaliforniaSeptember 9, 1850[31]
(admitted)
Unorganized territory / Mexican Cession (part)[g]
32  MinnesotaMay 11, 1858[32]
(admitted)
Minnesota Territory (part)
33  OregonFebruary 14, 1859
(admitted)
Oregon Territory (part)
34  KansasJanuary 29, 1861[33]
(admitted)
Kansas Territory (part)
35  West VirginiaJune 20, 1863[34]
(admitted)
Virginia (50 Trans-Allegheny region counties[h])
36  NevadaOctober 31, 1864
(admitted)
Nevada Territory
37  NebraskaMarch 1, 1867
(admitted)
Nebraska Territory
38  ColoradoAugust 1, 1876[37]
(admitted)
Colorado Territory
39  North DakotaNovember 2, 1889[38][i]
(admitted)
Dakota Territory (part)
40  South DakotaNovember 2, 1889[38][i]
(admitted)
Dakota Territory (part)
41  MontanaNovember 8, 1889[41]
(admitted)
Montana Territory
42  WashingtonNovember 11, 1889[42]
(admitted)
Washington Territory
43  IdahoJuly 3, 1890
(admitted)
Idaho Territory
44  WyomingJuly 10, 1890
(admitted)
Wyoming Territory
45  UtahJanuary 4, 1896[43]
(admitted)
Utah Territory
46  OklahomaNovember 16, 1907[44]
(admitted)
Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory
47  New MexicoJanuary 6, 1912
(admitted)
New Mexico Territory
48  ArizonaFebruary 14, 1912
(admitted)
Arizona Territory
49  AlaskaJanuary 3, 1959
(admitted)
Territory of Alaska
50  HawaiiAugust 21, 1959
(admitted)
Territory of Hawaii

Articles of Confederation ratification dates[edit]

The Second Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation for ratification by the individual states on November 15, 1777. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states. On March 4, 1789, the general government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the present Constitution.[45]

State Date
1Seal of Virginia.svgVirginiaDecember 16, 1777
2Seal of South Carolina.svgSouth CarolinaFebruary 5, 1778
3Seal of New York.svgNew YorkFebruary 6, 1778
4Seal of Rhode Island.svgRhode IslandFebruary 9, 1778
5Seal of Connecticut.svgConnecticutFebruary 12, 1778
6Seal of Georgia.svgGeorgiaFebruary 26, 1778
7Seal of New Hampshire.svgNew HampshireMarch 4, 1778
8Seal of Pennsylvania.svgPennsylvaniaMarch 5, 1778
9Seal of Massachusetts.svgMassachusettsMarch 10, 1778
10Seal of North Carolina.svgNorth CarolinaApril 5, 1778
11Seal of New Jersey.svgNew JerseyNovember 19, 1778
12Seal of Delaware.svgDelawareFebruary 1, 1779
13Seal of Maryland (reverse).svgMarylandFebruary 2, 1781

See also[edit]

  • Compromise of 1850, a package of congressional acts, one of which provided for the admission of California to the Union
  • Bleeding Kansas, a series of violent conflicts in Kansas Territory involving anti-slavery and pro-slavery factions in the years preceding Kansas statehood, 1854–61
  • Enabling Act of 1889, authorizing residents of Dakota, Montana, and Washington territories to form state governments (Dakota to be divided into two states) and to gain admission to the Union
  • Oklahoma Enabling Act, authorizing residents of the Oklahoma and Indian territories, and the New Mexico and Arizona territories, to form two state governments as steps to gaining admission to the Union
  • Alaska Statehood Act, admitting Alaska as a state in the Union as of January 3, 1959

Notes[edit]

  1. ^This list does not account for the secession of 11 states (Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas) during the Civil War to form the Confederate States of America, nor for the subsequent restoration of those states to the Union, or each state's "readmission to representation in Congress" after the war, as the federal government does not give legal recognition to their having left the Union. Also, the Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to secede from the Union, but the Supreme Court held that a state cannot unilaterally do so in Texas v. White (1869).[7]
  2. ^ Also known as the "Three Lower Counties Upon Delaware". Delaware became a state on June 15, 1776, when the Delaware Assembly formally adopted a resolution declaring an end to Delaware's status as a colony of Great Britain and establishing the three counties as an independent state under the authority of "the Government of the Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex Upon Delaware".[9]
  3. ^ Between 1749 and 1764 the provincial governor of New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth, issued approximately 135 grants for unoccupied land claimed by New Hampshire west of the Connecticut River (in what is today southern Vermont), territory that was also claimed by New York. The resulting "New Hampshire Grants" dispute led to the rise of the Green Mountain Boys, and the later establishment of the Vermont Republic. New Hampshire's claim upon the land was extinguished in 1764 by royal order of George III, and in 1790 the State of New York ceded its land claim to Vermont for 30,000 dollars.
  4. ^ The Virginia General Assembly adopted legislation on December 18, 1789, separating its "District of Kentucky" from the rest of the State and approving its statehood.[17]
  5. ^ The exact date upon which Ohio became a state is unclear. On April 30, 1802, the 7th Congress had passed an act "authorizing the inhabitants of Ohio to form a Constitution and state government, and admission of Ohio into the Union" (Sess. 1, ch. 40, 2 Stat. 173). On February 19, 1803, the same Congress passed an act "providing for the execution of the laws of the United States in the State of Ohio" (Sess. 2, ch. 7, 2 Stat. 201). Neither act, however, set a formal date of statehood. An official statehood date for Ohio was not set until 1953, when the 83rd Congress passed a Joint resolution "for admitting the State of Ohio into the Union", (Pub.L. 83–204, 67 Stat. 407, enacted August 7, 1953) which designated March 1, 1803, as that date.[20]
  6. ^ The Massachusetts General Court passed enabling legislation on June 19, 1819, separating the "District of Maine" from the rest of the State (an action approved by the voters in Maine on July 19, 1819, by 17,001 to 7,132); then, on February 25, 1820, passed a follow-up measure officially accepting the fact of Maine's imminent statehood.[17]
  7. ^Most of the region ceded by Mexico to the United States in 1848, following the Bear Flag Revolt and the Mexican–American War, had been the Mexican Department of Alta California. The Act of Congress establishing California as the 31st state was part of the Compromise of 1850.
  8. ^ On May 13, 1862, the General Assembly of the Restored Government of Virginia passed an act granting permission for creation of West Virginia.[35] Later, by its ruling in Virginia v. West Virginia (1871), the Supreme Court implicitly affirmed that the breakaway Virginia counties did have the proper consents necessary to become a separate state.[36]
  9. ^ ab Brought into existence within moments of each other on the same day, North and South Dakota are the nation's only twin-born states. Before signing the statehood papers, President Benjamin Harrison shuffled the papers so that no one would know which became a state first. By custom, North Dakota is commonly recognized as the 39th state and South Dakota as the 40th, as "n" precedes "s" in the alphabet.[39][40]

References[edit]

  1. ^Erler, Edward. "Essays on Amendment XIV: Citizenship". The Heritage Foundation.
  2. ^"Frequently Asked Questions About the Minnesota Legislature". Minnesota State Legislature.
  3. ^Kristin D. Burnett. "Congressional Apportionment (2010 Census Briefs C2010BR-08)"(PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration.
  4. ^Elhauge, Einer R. "Essays on Article II: Presidential Electors". The Heritage Foundation.
  5. ^"Doctrine of the Equality of States". Justia.com.
  6. ^Jensen, Merrill (1959). The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. xi, 184. ISBN .
  7. ^"Texas v. White 74 U.S. 700 (1868)". Justia.com.
  8. ^ abcdefghVile, John R. (2005). The Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of America's Founding (Volume 1: A-M). ABC-CLIO. p. 658. ISBN .
  9. ^"Delaware Government". Delaware.gov. Government Information Center, Delaware Department of State.
  10. ^"Overview of Pennsylvania History - 1776-1861: Independence to the Civil War". PA.gov. Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission.
  11. ^"1787 Convention Minutes". NJ.gov. New Jersey Department of State.
  12. ^"Today in History: January 9". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  13. ^"Today in History: July 26". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  14. ^"Today in History: November 21". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  15. ^"The 14th State". Vermont History Explorer. Vermont Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013.
  16. ^"Constitution Square State Historic Site". americanheritage.com. American Heritage Publishing Co. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  17. ^ ab"Official Name and Status History of the several States and U.S. Territories". TheGreenPapers.com.
  18. ^"State History Timeline". TN.gov. Tennessee Department of State. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016.
  19. ^Blue, Frederick J. (Autumn 2002). "The Date of Ohio Statehood". Ohio Academy of History Newsletter. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010.
  20. ^Clearing up the Confusion surrounding Ohio's Admission to Statehood
  21. ^"About Louisiana: quick facts". louisiana.gov. Archived from the original on March 24, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  22. ^"Welcome from the Mississippi Bicentennial Celebration Commission". Mississippi Bicentennial Celebration Commission. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  23. ^"Today in History: December 3". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  24. ^"Alabama History Timeline: 1800-1860". alabama.gov. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  25. ^"Today in History: March 15". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  26. ^"Today in History: August 10". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  27. ^"Today in History: June 15". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  28. ^"Today in History: January 26". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  29. ^"Texas enters the Union". This Day In History. A&E Television Networks. March 4, 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  30. ^"Today in History: May 29". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  31. ^"California Admission Day September 9, 1850". CA.gov. California Department of Parks and Recreation.
  32. ^"Today in History: May 11". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  33. ^"Today in History: January 29". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  34. ^"Today in History: June 20". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  35. ^"A State of Convenience: The Creation of West Virginia, Chapter Twelve, Reorganized Government of Virginia Approves Separation". Wvculture.org. West Virginia Division of Culture and History.
  36. ^"Virginia v. West Virginia 78 U.S. 39 (1870)". Justia.com.
  37. ^"Today in History: August 1". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  38. ^ ab"Today in History: November 2". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  39. ^MacPherson, James; Burbach, Kevin (November 2, 2014). "At 125 years of Dakotas statehood, rivalry remains". The Bismarck Tribune. AP. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  40. ^Stein, Mark (2008). "How the States Got Their Shapes," Smithsonian Books/Harper Collins, p. 256.
  41. ^Wishart, David J. (ed.). "Montana". Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  42. ^"Today in History: November 11". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  43. ^Thatcher, Linda (2016). "Struggle For Statehood Chronology". historytogo.utah.gov. State of Utah.
  44. ^"Today in History: November 16". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  45. ^Rodgers, Paul (2011). United States Constitutional Law: An Introduction. McFarland. p. 109. ISBN .

External links[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_by_date_of_admission_to_the_Union

Delaware State Quarter

Production Process: Circulating

Coin Type: Circulating

Denomination: Quarter

Authorized Mintage Maximum: N/A

Approval Date: 12/01/1997

 

Read MoreRead Less

Characteristics

Obverse Description: Highlights a bust of President George Washington.

Reverse Description: The Delaware coin is the first coin released in the 50 State Quarters Program and was released on January 4, 1999. Delaware, admitted into the Union on December 7, 1787, themed the coin, The First State. This coin celebrates Caesar Rodney's historic horseback ride in 1776. President William J. Clinton was in office when this legislation was signed. Three United States Mint Directors served under President Clinton's tenure; David J. Ryder of Idaho, Philip N. Diehl of Texas, and Jay W. Johnson of Wisconsin.

Obverse Inscriptions

• UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
• LIBERTY
• IN GOD WE TRUST
• QUARTER DOLLAR

Reverse Inscriptions

• THE FIRST STATE
• DELAWARE
• 1787
• 1999
• E PLURIBUS UNUM

Mint and Mint Mark

Artist Information

Obverse
  • Designer: John Flanagan and William Cousins
Reverse
  • Designer: William Cousins

Related Information

Content last reviewed June 1, 2016 Источник: https://www.usmint.gov/coins/coin-medal-programs/50-state-quarters/delaware

Articles of Confederation, 1777–1781

The Articles of Confederation served as the written document that established the functions of the national government of the United States after it declared independence from Great Britain. It established a weak central government that mostly, but not entirely, prevented the individual states from conducting their own foreign diplomacy.

The Articles of Confederation

The Albany Plan an earlier, pre-independence attempt at joining the colonies into a larger union, had failed in part because the individual colonies were concerned about losing power to another central insitution. As the American Revolution gained momentum, however, many political leaders saw the advantages of a centralized government that could coordinate the Revolutionary War. In June of 1775, the New York provincial Congress sent a plan of union to the Continental Congress, which, like the Albany Plan, continued to recognize the authority of the British Crown.

Some Continental Congress delegates had also informally discussed plans for a more permanent union than the Continental Congress, whose status was temporary. Benjamin Franklin had drawn up a plan for “Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.” While some delegates, such as Thomas Jefferson, supported Franklin’s proposal, many others were strongly opposed. Franklin introduced his plan before Congress on July 21, but stated that it should be viewed as a draft for when Congress was interested in reaching a more formal proposal. Congress tabled the plan.

Following the Declaration of Independence, the members of the Continental Congress realized it would be necessary to set up a national government. Congress began to discuss the form this government would take on July 22, disagreeing on a number of issues, including whether representation and voting would be proportional or state-by-state. The disagreements delayed final discussions of confederation until October of 1777. By then, the British capture of Philadelphia had made the issue more urgent. Delegates finally formulated the Articles of Confederation, in which they agreed to state-by-state voting and proportional state tax burdens based on land values, though they left the issue of state claims to western lands unresolved. Congress sent the Articles to the states for ratification at the end of November. Most delegates realized that the Articles were a flawed compromise, but believed that it was better than an absence of formal national government.

On December 16, 1777, Virginia was the first state to ratify. Other states ratified during the early months of 1778. When Congress reconvened in June of 1778, the delegates learned that Maryland, Delaware and New Jersey refused to ratify the Articles. The Articles required unanimous approval from the states. These smaller states wanted other states to relinquish their western land claims before they would ratify the Articles. New Jersey and Delaware eventually agreed to the conditions of the Articles, with New Jersey ratifying on Nov 20, 1778, and Delaware on Feb 1, 1779. This left Maryland as the last remaining holdout.

Irked by Maryland’s recalcitrance, several other state governments passed resolutions endorsing the formation of a national government without the state of Maryland, but other politicians such as Congressman Thomas Burke of North Carolina persuaded their governments to refrain from doing so, arguing that without unanimous approval of the new Confederation, the new country would remain weak, divided, and open to future foreign intervention and manipulation.

Meanwhile, in 1780, British forces began to conduct raids on Maryland communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Alarmed, the state government wrote to the French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne asking for French naval assistance. Luzerne wrote back, urging the government of Maryland to ratify the Articles of Confederation. Marylanders were given further incentive to ratify when Virginia agreed to relinquish its western land claims, and so the Maryland legislature ratified the Articles of Confederation on March 1, 1781.

French minister Anne-César De la Luzerne

The Continental Congress voted on Jan 10, 1781, to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs; on Aug 10 of that year, it elected Robert R. Livingston as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. The Secretary’s duties involved corresponding with U.S. representatives abroad and with ministers of foreign powers. The Secretary was also charged with transmitting Congress’ instructions to U.S. agents abroad and was authorized to attend sessions of Congress. A further Act of Feb 22, 1782, allowed the Secretary to ask and respond to questions during sessions of the Continental Congress.

The Articles created a sovereign, national government, and, as such, limited the rights of the states to conduct their own diplomacy and foreign policy. However, this proved difficult to enforce, as the national government could not prevent the state of Georgia from pursuing its own independent policy regarding Spanish Florida, attempting to occupy disputed territories and threatening war if Spanish officials did not work to curb Indian attacks or refrain from harboring escaped slaves. Nor could the Confederation government prevent the landing of convicts that the British Government continued to export to its former colonies. In addition, the Articles did not allow Congress sufficient authority to enforce provisions of the 1783 Treaty of Paris that allowed British creditors to sue debtors for pre-Revolutionary debts, an unpopular clause that many state governments chose to ignore. Consequently, British forces continued to occupy forts in the Great Lakes region. These problems, combined with the Confederation government’s ineffectual response to Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts, convinced national leaders that a more powerful central government was necessary. This led to the Constitutional Convention that formulated the current Constitution of the United States.

Источник: https://history.state.gov/milestones/1776-1783/articles

Representatives from the 13 colonies convened the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774. The following year the Second Continental Congress met at Philadelphia's State-House. Baltimore; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; York, Pennsylvania; and College Hall in Philadelphia were also meeting sites for the Second Continental Congress.

Under the Articles of Confederation, from 1781 to 1788, Congress convened in Philadelphia; Princeton, New Jersey; Annapolis, Maryland; Trenton, New Jersey; and New York.  Since the U.S. Congress was established by the Constitution in 1789, it has convened in three locations:  New York, Philadelphia, and its permanent home in Washington, D.C.

Nine Capitals details why the Continental Congress, Congress under the Articles of Confederation, and the U.S. Congress moved from place to place until a permanent capital was established in Washington, D.C.   Each chapter gives historical information on the events surrounding the move to the city, what business occurred there, and why the government moved on. Robert Fortenbaugh provides a rare analysis describing the little-known fact that there were nine capitals of the United States.

In November 2000, the U.S. Congress commemorated two centuries of residence in Washington, D.C. Learn more about the numerous chambers the Senate and House of Representatives have occupied in Washington.

First Continental Congress

September 5, 1774 to October 24, 1774:
    Philadelphia, Carpenter’s Hall

Second Continental Congress

May 10, 1775 to December 12, 1776:
   Philadelphia, State House

December 20, 1776 to February 27, 1777:
    Baltimore, Henry Fite’s House

March 4, 1777 to September 18, 1777:
    Philadelphia, State House

September 27, 1777 (one day):
   Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Court House

September 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778:
   York, Pennsylvania, Court House

July 2, 1778 to March 1, 1781:
    Philadelphia, College Hall, then State House

Congress under the Articles of Confederation

March 1, 1781 to June 21, 1783:
   Philadelphia, State House

June 30, 1783 to November 4, 1783:
   Princeton, New Jersey, “Prospect,” then Nassau Hall

November 26, 1783 to August 19, 1784:
   Annapolis, Maryland, State House

November 1, 1784 to December 24, 1784:
    Trenton, New Jersey, French Arms Tavern

January 11, 1785 to Autumn 1788:
    New York, City Hall, then Fraunce's Tavern

Congress under the Constitution

March 4, 1789 to August 12, 1790:
    New York, Federal Hall

December 6, 1790 to May 14, 1800:
    Philadelphia, Philadelphia County Building–Congress Hall

November 17, 1800:
    Washington, U.S. Capitol

Источник: https://www.senate.gov/reference/reference_item/Nine_Capitals_of_the_United_States.htm
first state in america
first state in america

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