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Thank you for smoking discussion questions


thank you for smoking discussion questions

Thank you for your continued time and participation in the NIH-AARP Diet and are available to answer smoking-related questions in English or Spanish. Intro: Thank you for agreeing to do this survey about smoking and tobacco use. The next few questions are about how much you smoke and what kinds of. As aforementioned, there are several ethical issues that has been put into question through Nick and Heather's practices while they were.
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Thank You For Smoking [Motion picture]. (2006). USA: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment.


Released in 2006 and based on Christopher Buckley’s 1994 novel of the same title, Thank You For Smoking is a film that provides a cynical sense of humor to the lobbying industry, specifically tobacco lobbying. The main character, Nick Naylor (played by Aaron Eckhart, spins on behalf of cigarettes while trying to remain a role model for his twelve-year-old son. This in itself poses a problem as he has to find the balance between doing his job and protecting his son.

The primary ethical issue in this film is actions of Nick Naylor, the chief spokesman for the Academy of Tobacco Studies, which is a tobacco industry-lobbying firm that promotes the benefits of cigarettes. He has a clear lack of ethical behavior and almost takes pride in his ability to ignore moral and ethical guidelines. He describes this as “moral flexibility”. His strong suit is spinning the truth in arguments so that he never appears wrong. At one point, in a conversation with his son, he gives the example of arguing whether chocolate or vanilla is the better flavor. He explains to his son that it doesn’t matter which is actually better, but that people should have the right to choose which they prefer because that is the definition of freedom. He continues on to explain that it doesn’t matter whether he convinces people that vanilla is the better flavor, as long as he convinces them that the person arguing for chocolate is wrong (because this means that he, in turn, is right). This is the perfect example of his “moral flexibility” being applied to a situation much less controversial than cigarettes.

In the introduction to the movie, Naylor discusses the inner-workings of the Academy of Tobacco Studies and mentions their team of “sharks” (lawyers), and how they’re drafted out of law school and bribed into the company with timeshares and sports cars. This introduces another component of Naylor’s lack of ethics. He and the company he works for are not beyond being “morally flexible” themselves – they draft people to work for them and bribe them to follow the same (lack of) ethical guidelines.

Another ethical issue in Thank You For Smoking involves journalist Heather Holloway (played by Katie Holmes), who is pursuing a story about Nick Naylor. She goes to incredible lengths to find out more about Nick (by sleeping with him on multiple occasions), and loses her credibility in the process. She publishes an article in “The Washington Probe” revealing all of Nick’s secrets, including his meetings with the “MOD Squad” (Merchants of Death – firearm lobbyist Bobby Jay Bliss and alcohol lobbyist Polly Bailey), and the hush money he delivered to a former cigarette representative who contracted lung cancer as a result. This issue is not only prominent in the movie but in the real world as well, where the publishing of “off record” and unsubstantiated information is prevalent.

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Источник: https://mediaethicsmorning.wordpress.com/2015/03/05/ethical-analysis-thank-you-for-smoking/

What to Know About Nicotine Use

Nicotine, a stimulant found in tobacco plants, is one of the most heavily used drugs in the United States—and it's just as addictive as cocaine or heroin, according to the surgeon general. Nicotine products are regulated by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). While nicotine is legal, as of 2019, it is illegal to sell or distribute nicotine-containing products to people under 21.

Cigarette smoking is the primary source of nicotine, with one pack of cigarettes providing some 250 "hits" of the extremely addictive substance.

Fewer people over the age of 18 are smoking today than ever before, but it still remains the most preventable cause of death in the United States accounting for 480,000 deaths annually. Estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 2018 indicate that 13.7% of the U.S. adult population smoke cigarettes.

Also Known As: Nicotine products include cigarettes (also known as "smokes"), pipes, cigars (sometimes referred to as "stogies"), chewing tobacco (also known as "dip" or "chew"), snuff, hookahs, and e-cigarettes (also known as "e-cigs" and "vapes").

Drug Class: Nicotine is classified as a stimulant.

Common Side Effects: Nicotine is known to causedecreased appetite, heightened mood, increased heart rate and blood pressure, nausea, diarrhea, better memory, and increased alertness.

How to Recognize Nicotine

Nicotine is rarely sold as a singular product, rather it's most often found as an ingredient in tobacco products like cigarettes and some smoking cessation products like nicotine gum and patches. Nicotine is sold as a liquid for use in e-cigarettes.

The FDA requires warning statement labels on tobacco products: “WARNING: This product contains nicotine. Nicotine is an addictive chemical.”

What Does Nicotine Do?

When a person inhales cigarette smoke, the nicotine in the smoke is rapidly absorbed into the blood and starts affecting the brain within 10 seconds. Once there, nicotine triggers a number of chemical reactions that create temporary feelings of pleasure and concentration. But these sensations are short-lived, subsiding within minutes.

These chemical reactions include the release of catecholamines such as adrenaline, the "fight or flight" hormone. Physically, adrenaline increases heart rate and blood pressure. When this occurs, smokers may experience rapid, shallow breathing and the feeling of a racing heartbeat. Adrenaline also tells the body to dump excess glucose into the bloodstream.

Nicotine also curbs appetite and may contribute to weight loss in complex ways.

What the Experts Say

Many researchers are beginning to question whether nicotine is any more harmful than a daily dose of caffeine.

To date, there have been studies showing positive effects of nicotine, including decreased tension and increased thinking, as well as the stimulant's potential in warding off cognitive decline into Alzheimer's, delaying the progression of Parkinson's disease, and as a therapeutic approach for ADHD and schizophrenia.

Still, health professionals continue to warn about the dangers of nicotine, especially when used by adolescents whose brains are still developing (until age 25).

Nicotine impacts the parts of the brain that play a role in attention, memory, learning, and brain plasticity.

While cigarette smoking is on the decline, vaping and e-cigarettes are on the rise. The American Academy of Pediatrics warns that "e-cigarettes are threatening to addict a new generation to nicotine."

Off-Label and Approved Uses

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was the first pharmacological treatment approved by the FDA for smoking cessation. In fact, studies show that using the nicotine patch can double the rate of a person's smoking cessation success, especially when combined with support.

There are a variety of available NRT products, including:

  • Nicotine patch
  • Nicotine gum
  • Nicotine nasal spray
  • Nicotine inhaler
  • Nicotine lozenges

Pros and Cons of Nicotine Replacement Therapy

Common Side Effects

Nicotine causes a range of effects on both the body and mind, including:

  • Decreased appetite
  • Heightened mood
  • Increased activity in the intestines
  • Increased production of saliva and phlegm
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Better memory
  • Increased alertness

Signs of Use

If your loved one is smoking cigarettes, you’ll likely be able to smell it on them. Detecting vaping can be a bit more difficult—but there are still some signs of use:

  • Devices: E-cigarettes or "vape pens" can look like a thumb drive, pen, or stylus, with holes on each end.
  • Irritability: This is a classic sign of withdrawal.
  • Sweet smells: Vapor juice is often flavored, so if you suddenly catch a whiff of fruit punch or bubble gum (and there’s no candy around), it could be a red flag.
  • Nosebleeds: Vaping can dry out the nasal passages and cause nose bleeds.
  • Drinking more liquids:The vaporized liquid in e-cigs contains propylene glycol, which attracts and holds water molecules from the mouth, causing constant dry mouth.

Can You Overdose on Nicotine?

Nicotine is poisonous and overdose is possible, though not common. Most often, nicotine poisoning occurs when children mistake nicotine gum or lozenges for candy.

If you or someone you care about experiences the following signs of nicotine overdose, call 911 or poison control (800-222-1222) immediately:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Vomiting
  • Fainting
  • Headache
  • Weakness
  • Increased or decreased heart rate

Common Questions

Many people think that nicotine causes cancer—but the jury is still out. Nicotine is certainly a harmful, addictive substance but it is mainly the tar and the other toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke that are linked to cancer.

Research does suggest that nicotine can increase the risk of cancer due to its damaging effects on DNA, although the risk is much lower than those from smoking cigarettes. A study by the National Cancer Institute found that those who were most addicted to nicotine—smoking a cigarette within five minutes of waking up—had the greatest risk of developing lung cancer.

Given the addictive nature of nicotine, some people may think you can get hooked on the nicotine in smoking cessation products like the patch or nicotine gum and lozenges. While possible, most people find it easy to get off nicotine medicine after several months. In general, these products deliver nicotine to your body more slowly and in smaller doses. 

Many teens think that using e-cigarettes is safer, however, they still contain high levels of nicotine. The brand JUUL packs perhaps the most potent dose: One pod contains roughly 20 cigarettes worth of nicotine and the product claims to deliver the addictive substance 2.7 times faster than other e-cigarettes.

Tolerance, Dependence, and Withdrawal

Nicotine is extremely addictive and, when used regularly, your body and mind learn to expect a certain amount of nicotine each day—and if it doesn't get it, withdrawal can be intense. You can quickly build a tolerance to nicotine, needing more to reach the desired effect. This is one reason why it's so hard (but not impossible) to quit smoking.

How Long Does Nicotine Stay in Your System?

Nicotine (in the form of a cigarette, pipe, or e-cigarette smoke) is mostly absorbed into the body through the lungs as well as the membranes in the mouth and throat. It can also be absorbed in your gastrointestinal tract (via chewing tobacco, nicotine gum, and lozenges) or your skin if you use a nicotine patch.

Nicotine is mainly metabolized in the liver and is excreted via urine through the kidneys as well as in feces. How long it stays in your system depends on many factors, including age, weight, type, frequency of use, and hydration and physical activity levels.

That said, the estimated timeframe is as follows:

  • Urine test: Two to four days
  • Blood test: Two to four days
  • Saliva test: One to four days
  • Hair follicle test: Up to 90 days

Many routine drug tests screen for nicotine.

How Long Nicotine Stays in Your System

Addiction

Nicotine is a highly addictive substance that's found in all tobacco products, including cigarettes, pipes, cigars, chewing tobacco, snuff, hookahs, e-cigarettes, and other vaping devices.

Nicotine activates the same reward pathways in the brain that other drugs such as cocaine or amphetamines do, although to a lesser degree. Research has shown that nicotine increases the level of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter that is responsible for feelings of pleasure and well-being.

The Truth About Smoking Pleasure and Nicotine Addiction

Withdrawal

As the nicotine level drops in the blood, people may feel edgy and agitated—the start of nicotine withdrawal. The acute effects of nicotine wear off within minutes, so people who smoke must continue dosing themselves frequently throughout the day to maintain the pleasurable effects of nicotine and to prevent nicotine withdrawal, which causes a host of physical and psychological symptoms:

  • Cravings to smoke
  • Irritability, crankiness
  • Insomnia
  • Fatigue
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Headache
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Constipation, gas, stomach pain
  • Dry mouth
  • Sore tongue and/or gums
  • Postnasal drip
  • Tightness in the chest

7 Tips for Surviving Nicotine Withdrawal

How to Get Help

Statistics show that only a small percentage (approximately 7%) of people who try to quit smoking without support are still smoke-free a year later. However, those with a quit program in place that includes education about nicotine addiction and a solid support group, do much better.

Whether you prefer to quit cold turkey or choose to use a quit aid to help you stop smoking, it's important to recognize that recovery from nicotine addiction is a process of gradual release over time.

Quitting nicotine doesn't happen overnight, but with perseverance, freedom from nicotine addiction is doable and will pay you back with benefits that go well beyond what you can probably imagine.

How to Quit Smoking for Good

Thanks for your feedback!

Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Newly Signed Legislation Raises Federal Minimum Age of Sale of Tobacco Products to 21. Food and Drug Administration. Updated January 15, 2020.

  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States. Updated November 18, 2019.

  3. Leading Medical Groups Applaud Surgeon General's Report on E-Cigarettes and Youth. American Academy of Pediatrics. December 8, 2016.

  4. Duke University Health System. Smokers Double Their Quit Rate By Wearing Nicotine Patch Before Stopping. Updated January 20, 2016.

  5. National Cancer Institute. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer. 2014.

  6. Willett JG, Bennett M, Hair EC, et al. Recognition, use, and perceptions of JUUL among youth and young adults. Tob Control. 2019;28(1):115-116. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054273

  7. Mishra A, Chaturvedi P, Datta S, Sinukumar S, Joshi P, Garg A. Harmful effects of nicotine. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. 2015;36(1):24-31. doi:10.4103/0971-5851.151771

  8. National Institutes of Health. Managing Withdrawal. smokefree.gov.

Источник: https://www.verywellmind.com/nicotine-addiction-101-2825018
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Источник: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0427944/plotsummary

Thank You for Smoking Summary & Study Guide

Thank You for Smoking by Christopher Buckley is a farcical novel that travesties American government and the lobby system that thrives on it. It follows Nick Naylor, chief spokesperson for a powerful tobacco lobby, as he rises to media stardom resulting from a kidnapping attempt before becoming embroiled in a vast Washington conspiracy.

The story begins with Nick receiving an ultimatum from BR, his new boss at the Academy for Tobacco Studies, to develop a new means of promoting tobacco or lose his job. After discussing the matter with Bobby Jay and Polly - respectively the spokespeople for firearms and alcohol in a cohort they call the MOD Squad (Merchants of Death) - Nick comes up with the idea of reintroducing cigarettes into popular movies in a positive light. BR is unimpressed and intends to give Nick's job to his ambitious colleague, Jeannette.

He is saved at the last minute, though, by a successful appearance on Oprah that grabs the attention of the Captain, the elderly president of Agglomerated Tobacco. The Captain hires him back at double salary, and Nick finds himself in an auspicious position. He starts an affair with a young newspaper reporter, Heather Holloway, and gets a spot on Larry King. While on air, Nick receives an anonymous call threatening his life. Days later, he is abducted outside the Academy and plastered with nicotine patches, nearly killing him. Nick somehow survives the attack and finds that the media loves him, as does his boss. He does interview after interview, and his idea to put cigarettes in movies goes into effect. Nick, meanwhile, begins an affair with Jeanette. As all this is happening, he is receiving regular visits by two FBI agents who seem convinced that he kidnapped himself.

Nick heads to Los Angeles to pitch the cigarette placement idea to venal movie mogul Jeff Megall. Jeff is excited by the idea and the revenue it could bring in. Nick is called back to Washington DC to deal with a bill going through Congress requiring a skull and crossbones be stamped on cigarette packs. He gives stellar interviews on Nightline and at the Senate hearings, all but decimating their political rival, Senator Finisterre. Still, the bill passes, and FBI pressure on Nick is mounting. BR and the Captain tell him to retain legal counsel.

Eventually, Nick is arrested, the FBI having discovered a Virginia cabin rented in his name with boxes of nicotine patches in it marked with his fingerprints. He realizes that BR and Jeannette, lovers themselves, are trying to bounce him from the Academy. First they tried to kill him; that having failed, they're trying to get him arrested. Nick breaks the terms of his bail, going to Winston-Salem and imploring the Captain to help. The Captain agrees but dies the next day. Nick is fired by BR.

Gomez O'Neal, a former CIA spook and information man for the Academy, comes to Nick's aid. He provides information regarding BR's past murders of cigarette litigants and Nick's attempted murder. Nick, by now, is disillusioned by the tobacco industry and decides to plead guilty. First, though, and with the help of the MOD Squad, he kidnaps BR's hit man and convinces him that BR is behind it. The hit man murders BR and frames Jeannette. Nick married Polly and publishes a book about his experiences with the Academy called Thank You for Smoking.

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Summaries

  • Satirical comedy follows the machinations of Big Tobacco's chief spokesman, Nick Naylor, who spins on behalf of cigarettes while trying to remain a role model for his 12-year old son.

  • The chief spokesperson and lobbyist Nick Naylor is the Vice President of the Academy of Tobacco Studies. He is talented in speaking and spins arguments to defend the cigarette industry in the most difficult situations. His best friends are Polly Bailey that works in the Moderation Council in alcohol business, and Bobby Jay Bliss of the gun business own advisory group SAFETY. They frequently meet each other in a bar and they self-title the M.O.D. Squad, a.k.a. Merchants of Death, disputing which industry has killed more people. Nick's greatest enemy is Vermont's Senator Ortolan Finistirre, who defends in the Senate the use of a skull and crossbones on cigarette packs. Nick's son Joey Naylor lives with his mother, and has the chance to know his father in a business trip. When the ambitious reporter Heather Holloway betrays Nick disclosing confidences he had in bed with her, his life turns upside-down. But Nick is good in what he does for the mortgage.

    —Claudio Carvalho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  • As a Vice President of the Academy of Tobacco Studies, a Washington tobacco lobby masquerading as research organization debunking the health risks of tobacco use, Nick Naylor, a born communicator, is the public face of the tobacco lobby. As the Academy is funded by big tobacco, Nick is able to use the "research" to spin the messages for tobacco and against anyone who is anti-tobacco. Calling themselves the M.O.D. (Merchants of Death) Squad, he often meets unofficially with his fellow lobbyists Polly Bailey and Bobby Jay Bliss, who represent alcohol and firearms respectively, to discuss mutual strategies. As the biggest problem Nick and the tobacco lobby faces is declining smoking rates among youth, Nick comes up with a campaign to re-glamorize smoking in movies, which has the stumbling blocks of the highly public smoking-related health issues faced by former Marlboro man, Lorne Lutch, and Vermont Senator Ortolan Finistirre who is pushing for mandatory poison labeling of tobacco products. Nick hopes he can use his communication skills and charm to spin what looks to be an expose by Washington Probe reporter Heather Holloway in his favor. Through all these machinations, Nick is trying to re-establish a relationship with his preteen son, Joey Naylor, who lives with his mother and new stepfather. Joey wants to understand what his father truly does for a living, while Nick wants to set a good example for Joey while still staying true to his own beliefs of what he does for a living.

    —Huggo

  • Tobacco industry lobbyist Nick Naylor has a seemingly impossible task: promoting cigarette smoking in a time when the health hazards of the activity have become too plain to ignore. Nick, however, revels in his job, using argument and twisted logic to place, as often as not, his clients in the positions of either altruistic do-gooders or victims. Nick's son Joey needs to understand and respect his dad's philosophy, and Nick works hard to respond to that need without compromising his lack of values. When a beautiful news reporter betrays Nick's sexually-achieved trust, his world seems in danger of collapsing. But there's always one more coffin nail in Nick's pack.

    —Jim Beaver <[email protected]>


Spoilers

The synopsis below may give away important plot points.

Synopsis

  • The film opens with Nick Naylor (Aaron Eckhart) appearing on Joan Lunden's daytime talk show, along a doctor, a senator's aide, and a teenage boy with cancer. As he's introduced, the audience spits at him. The screen freezes, spittle in midair, while Naylor explains what he does for a living in a voice over. He works for the Academy of Tobacco Studies, and he represents Big Tobacco. The Academy is supposed to research links between disease and smoking, and has never been able to find anything conclusive.

    On the show and throughout the film, he takes the offensive position (in both senses). On Joan Lunden's show, he protests that in no way would he want a potential customer to die, and accuses the doctor of profiting off cancer patients.

    His immediate nemesis is Senator Ortolan Finisterre (William H. Macy), a Birkenstock-wearing Vermonter whose office is decorated with cheese and bottles of maple syrup. Senator Finisterre wants to plaster a graphic skull-and-crossbones picture on every pack of cigarettes.

    Through all of this, Naylor is also trying to maintain a relationship with his son Joey (Cameron Bright). Naylor's boss BR (J.K. Simmons) wants ideas on how to make smoking sell. "We don't sell Tic Tacs, we sell cigarettes. And they're cool, available, and addictive. The job is almost done for us." Naylor has the idea of product placement in movies.

    He takes Joey on the trip to Los Angeles to meet with an agent about putting more smoking in movies. Naylor is divorced, and shares custody of his son. His son is rather uncomfortable with his father's profession, but Naylor is as great arguing with his son as he is with the press and starts to win him over. Naylor portrays himself as being on the side of freedom and personal choice.

    On a side trip, Naylor takes a briefcase full of cash to the original Marlboro Man Lorne Lutch (Sam Elliott) who is dying of cancer. There's no strings attached; Lutch can just keep the money. A suspicious Lutch asks why he can't just go to the press. Naylor suggests he do exactly that, and recommends which reporter to talk to. Lutch can go on TV, denounce the tobacco industry, and donate the money to a worthy cause. Donate? Well, if he denounces them he can't keep any of the blood money. Naylor leaves, confident that Lutch will keep quiet.

    Back in DC, he debates Senator Finisterre on Dennis Miller's show. A caller threatens Naylor with death for being responsible for millions of deaths. Naylor brushes the threat off, but he's kidnapped. The kidnapper (Jeff Witzke) covers Naylor in nicotine patches and leaves him naked in the lap of the Lincoln Memorial. Ironically, his smoking gave him a resistance to the nicotine, otherwise he would have died.

    Naylor is interviewed by a reporter for a Washington paper, but ends up seducing her. He's confident of some positive press, but is shocked when she gives away all of his secrets. She was having sex with him to get the story. She tells about the hush money to Lutch, the movie deal, and his weekly meeting with the MOD Squad: the Merchants of Death, gun and liquor lobbyists (there's a funny bit where he one-ups them on how many people his industry kills).

    The Academy distances itself from Naylor, who is shattered for a while. Some supportive words from his son inspire him to fight back. He reveals that the reporter was having sex with him to ruin her career, and agrees to appear in front of Senator Finisterre's committee. He comes out swinging again, accusing Vermont's cheese of clogging arteries and causing heart disease. When asked if he would let his own son smoke, he points out that his son is under 18 and that would be illegal. Pressed for what he would do on his son's 18th birthday, he says that if his son wants a cigarette, he'll buy him one.

    Outside the hearing, BR offers him his job back but Naylor turns him down. Good timing: shortly thereafter, the tobacco industry settles for billions and the Academy is shut down. Joey wins the school's debating contest, and Naylor finds new clients: "Look into the mirror and repeat: 'There is no conclusive scientific evidence linking cell phone usage and brain cancer.'"

    Apart from the plot, the film is filled with absurd little cutaways. Naylor has a weird fantasy where's he's starring in a hotel safety video. The gun lobbyist has some trouble with the Senate metal detector. Naylor imagines other industries that can use help, like seal clubbers.

Getting Started

©2006 Fox Searchlight

(L-R) Maria Bello, David Koechner and Aaron Eckhart in THANK YOU FOR SMOKING.
Photo Credit: Dale Robinette

My first impression was that this film was a shiny rehash of Andrew Niccol’s smug polemic “Lord of War.” I was right. However, oddly, it actually works. In this case, writer/director Jason Reitman (son of Ivan Reitman) takes on the tobacco industry, a ripe target for the kind of deconstruction and criticism for which Niccol is known (also see “Gattaca” and “The Truman Show”).

Based on a novel by Christopher Buckley, “Thank You For Not Smoking” centers on the life of tobacco industry lobbyist Nick Naylor (Aaron Eckhart), and, to a lesser extent, his cohorts, gun lobbyist Bobby Jay Bliss (David Koechner) and Polly Bailey (Maria Bello), representing the alcoholic beverage industry. Together they form an unholy triumvirate which they comically refer to as the MOD Squad (Merchants Of Death). Nick alone represents an industry that, he openly admits, kills 1200 people a day. At their usual hang out, the MOD squad, as it were, delights in comparing death tolls brought about by the products of their respective industries.

Nick works for a boss almost more scheming and duplicitous than he, B.R. (J.K. Simmons), who himself reports to a captain of the old guard who, incidentally, is referred to as Captain (Robert Duvall). Of the Captain’s ability to spin, Nick says, “The man’s a genius. He could disprove gravity.”

The central plot is rather weak: Tobacco’s chief enemy in Congress is Senator Ortolan Finistirre (William H. Macy), who’s on a crusade to label cigarette packaging with “POISON” stickers. One’s mind immediately shifts back to the 1980’s, Tipper Gore and how the PMRC’s campaign for “Parental Advisory” labels on music essentially backfired by putting the spotlight on albums that contained profanity. Now recording artists wear these labels like a badge of honor. The film, unfortunately, doesn’t go that far. Instead, it falls back on the old standard balance between career (Naylor’s objective to kill Sen. Finistirre’s project) and conscience (Naylor’s relationship as a role model to his ex-wife’s son).

The film does take an unusual turn, however, in that Joey Naylor (Cameron Bright) isn’t looking to his father to be anything more than he is. What Joey understands is that Nick is an exceptionally-skilled spin doctor. Trying to write a speech for class, Joey asks, “Dad, why is the American government the best government in the world?” Nick quickly responds, “Because of our endless appeals system?”

Nick elaborates to Joey, “That’s the beauty of argument. If you argue correctly, you’re never wrong.” Funny he should mention this, because it seems to be the central philosophy that’s taken over the airwaves in the latest phenomenon in journalism: Talking Head Syndrome. Ever notice how every news channel now has it’s share of pundits squaring off on allegedly opposing sides of the debate? The interesting difference between science and debate is that science requires one to substantiate their case by empirical observation in a way that can be scrutinized through repeated trials by different researchers. Debate, on the other hand, sets a much lower bar: Whoever argues best must be right. Murrow must be spinning in his grave.

It rarely occurs to audiences in a debate, who have little time to actually check the facts there and then, that both sides could theoretically be wrong. Suffice it to say that in modern debates, usually neither side is a reputable expert on the subject matter being discussed. People who consistently prefer debate over empirical science as a proving ground know that they haven’t the ability to substantiate their case on the basis of facts.

Sorry, I got a little off-tangent there from the actual movie. Another subplot in the film involves teen smoking. “Our bread and butter,” B.R. calls it. Nick comes up with the idea of partnering with the motion picture industry to bring smoking back to the big screen. The thing about being a shark is that you work with sharks, and therefore it’s unwise to completely trust anyone. When the Captain calls on Nick to meet with him, personally, Nick learns that B.R. made it appear as though the movie connection were his idea. Nonetheless, if Nick can make the Hollywood connection work, he’d be worshiped as the man who reinvigorated the cigarette business. Who better than Hollywood’s own beleaguered Rob Lowe to play the power broker Jeff Megall?

Megall is a man whose dedication to making money (i.e., “greed”) makes Nick a philanthropist by comparison. His eccentric excesses, including having a zen gardener raking sand on the payroll (among other things), aren’t quite enough to make Dennis Kozlowski green with envy, but let’s say they’re close. “Jeff,” asks Nick, “When do you sleep?” Nick replies, “Sunday.” Megall reminds one of Wally Cook’s (Frederic March) description of Oliver Stone (Walter Connolly), “A cross between a ferris wheel and a werewolf.” (“Nothing Sacred,” 1937)

The punchline to all this setup, I suppose, is that the MOD squad are ultimately fucked over by someone even more unscrupulous than them. I won’t spoil who it is, but I’ll say it should be relatively obvious. The film doesn’t rely entirely on the twist, though, for its entertainment. It’s not quite as dark a satire as “Lord of War,” and its protagonist’s jolly attitude, resembling (frighteningly) a more rational sort of Timothy Treadwell, does distract one from taking in the sparse facts and figures thrown at you about the industry. But in that way, the movie is never in danger of being crushed by it’s own weight.

I do think that Niccol’s film was far better, but that’s largely due to his experience as a writer. Reitman, at 28, is off to a pretty good start here. People will be distracted somewhat by the criss-crossing plots that don’t seem to center on one main narrative, but the characters are the point of interest here—especially Joey. While you may not agree with Joey’s interpretation of the world, you have to acknowledge that being raised by a father such as Nick makes his character’s predilections entirely believable.

You might expect Nick to have learned a lesson after he’s hit rock bottom, but the reality is usually different… Consider, for example, Brandon Lang (Matthew McConaughey) in “Two For the Money.” The story was based on the real-life story of a high-stakes bookie. In the movie, Lang learns his lesson and goes back to doing something respectable. In real life, however, the minute Brandon Lang gained notoriety from the release of the film, that’s right… he capitalized on it by going right back into sports betting. Isn’t it obvious from that film the only reason that Brandon decided to clean up and coach kids’ football was because he lost his ass financially? So, it’s not surprising to learn how Nick Naylor deals himself back in the game, but in this twisted world of spin vs. spin, it’s entirely plausible.


Thank You For Smoking • Dolby® Digital surround sound in select theatres • Aspect Ratio: 2.35:1 • Running Time: 92 minutes • MPAA Rating: R for language and some sexual content. • Distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures

Dolby and the double-D symbol are registered trademarks of Dolby Laboratories.

Источник: http://cinemalogue.com/2006/03/31/thank-you-for-smoking/

expert reaction to questions about smoking and COVID-19

There have been questions from journalists about smoking and COVID-19.

Prof Ian Hall, Professor of Molecular Medicine, University of Nottingham, said:

“The most likely explanation for smoking being a risk factor for COVID-19 is that people who smoke are more likely to develop chronic lung diseases such as COPD and also cardiovascular disease, and therefore are more likely to have the conditions which are known to be associated with a poorer outcome from COVID19.

“Men seeming to be worse affected than women might be partly explained by the fact that men are more likely to have these associated conditions, because they historically were more likely to smoke. However, I am not convinced this completely explains the increased risk of severe disease in men, so it seems possible there may be some other as yet unidentified factor playing a role.

“Although some people do notice a slight increase in their cough when they stop smoking, it is temporary, and there are obvious long term benefits from stopping smoking.  There is no evidence that anyone stopping smoking is at more risk of transmitting disease, so I would always recommend that smokers should stop smoking.”

Dr James Gill, Locum GP & Honorary Clinical Lecturer, Warwick Medical School, said:

“Smoking is a significant risk factor for coronavirus infections and, in fact, infections generally. There are many interlocking factors as to why smoking reduces the body’s ability to fight an infection – from the ability to get oxygen from blood to tissues, through to the increased levels of carbon monoxide in the blood.

“Possibly one of the biggest reasons smokers are at increased risk of respiratory infections is the impairment and death of the cilia in the airways and lungs.

“In simple terms, the airways are lined with cilia – small brush-like hairs – these structures provide an absolutely vital function in moving mucous, inhaled debris and potentially infectious agents out of the airways and lungs before an infection can take hold.

“The chemicals from cigarettes, when inhaled, have two serious effects on these cilia – firstly they reduce the cilia movement, meaning it is harder to move mucous out of the lungs. Over time, prolonged inhaled smoke kills these cilia, drastically increasing the risk of infection.

“There is good news! Even stopping smoking for just 24hrs is seen to have a huge improvement on the function of remaining cilia. The longer you’ve stopped smoking, the greater your recovery. So it is never too late to stop smoking – especially now.

“People can make a huge contribution to their own protection against COVID19 by stopping smoking – even if it is simply during this pandemic. Not only that, if you live with some who smokes, you will be affected by their smoking, even if they go outside their cigarette. Stopping smoking will help protect yourself, the people around you, and potentially reduce the strain on the NHS too.

“Vaping is also preferable to smoking due to the lack of tar and other toxic chemicals, however it is possible that the hot gases involved in vaping may also have a negative effect on the cilia and overall lungs function, although this is likely to be far less harmful to the body’s respiratory system than smoking. But we need more research to fully understand this impact.

“Even if you only pause smoking during this crisis, that is still going to be a huge benefit to your lungs, and reduce your risk of potentially developing COVID19 if unfortunately exposed to coronavirus.”

Dr Tom Wingfield, Senior Clinical Lecturer and Honorary Consultant Physician, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), said:

“There is strong evidence that smoking tobacco is associated with an increased risk of respiratory viral infection, such as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Smoking both increases someone’s vulnerability to infection (repetitive touching of hand-to-face and hand-to-mouth) and reduces their ability to fight against it resulting in more severe disease.

“People who smoke regularly and for some years are more likely to have higher rates of hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, problems with their circulation, and chronic lung disease (lung damage and decreased lung capacity), all of which themselves are risk factors for severe Covid-19.

“While the evidence on e-cigarettes is still developing, it is clear that vaping is far less harmful to the body’s respiratory system than smoking.

“There is high quality evidence that smoking cessation leads to significant health benefits. Smoking cessation at any time represents a huge opportunity to improve people’s life expectancy. Decreasing rates of smoking rates at a country level can have a huge positive public health impact. Now is as good a moment as any to give up and smokers might be more receptive to stop at the present time!”

Dr Caitlin Notley, Chief Investigator for The NeSCi Study – Neonatal unit Smoking Cessation intervention development, University of East Anglia, said:

“The spread of COVID-19 has been deeply concerning and raises particular questions for smokers, ex-smokers and people choosing to use less harmful alternative to smoking, such as e-cigarettes.

“Evidence on the relationship between smoking and the progression to severe conditions of COVID-19 is lacking, but beginning to emerge. Some clear facts are:

“‘Vulnerable’ groups, i.e. those with health conditions , such as cardiovascular and respiratory disease, diabetes are more likely to be smokers or ex-smokers. This might suggest that smokers are more at risk of suffering from severe reactions to the COVID019 virus. Given this, it is more important than ever that people are supported to quit smoking.

“Pregnant women are classified as a vulnerable group, especially at risk of exposure to the COVID-19 virus, both for their own health and because we do not know what impact exposure to the virus may have on the developing foetus. As smoking further increases vulnerability, it is imperative that pregnant smokers are supported to quit smoking. The stop smoking service can offer support to pregnant women throughout pregnancy and is offering remote appointments as well as nicotine replacement therapy. Alternatively, e-cigarettes are an option that pregnant women might consider to help them quit smoking.

“For ex-smokers, particularly those who have recently quit, there may be an increased risk of smoking relapse, as people are stressed and anxious in the light of the COVID-19 situation, and stress is correlated with smoking relapse. It is important that ex-smokers are encouraged to remain smokefree.

“Similarly, vulnerable groups, including pregnant women who quit smoking during pregnancy, may be at increased risk of relapse as they may feel even more stressed and isolated after the birth of their baby than under usual conditions where social distancing is not enforced. Postpartum support encouraging women to stay smokefree is especially important during the COVID-19 outbreak.

“E-cigarettes are the most popular consumer option for stop smoking support, and they are effective. People should be encouraged to switch to vaping rather than continuing to smoke tobacco.

“There is no evidence that vaping increases the risk of infection or progression to severe conditions of COVID-19. However, Vapers with a long previous smoking history could exhibit conditions seen in vulnerable patients. However, this would not be an effect of vaping but of previous smoking. Since completely switching from smoking to vaping improves cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, smokers who switch to vaping might be expected to have a better prognosis if infected by COVID-19.

“There is a concern that as people are self-isolating in their homes, children and non-smokers may be at increased risk of second-hand smoke exposure if living with a smoker. Second-hand smoke exposure poses a significant risk to health. Smokers should be encouraged to quit or switch to vaping in order to reduce others exposure to second-hand smoke.

“It is concerning that vape shops have closed during the current societal lockdown situation. People who have stopped smoking and switched to vaping can still access the stop smoking service for support, and can still purchase e liquid and vaping consumables online, without having to come into contact with other people.”

Prof Robert West, Department of Behavioural Science and Health at University College London, said:

Does smoking appear to be a risk factor for COVID-19?

“One would expect smoking to be a risk factor for severity of the disease having been infected simply because smokers are more likely to have pre-existing cardiovascular and respiratory disease. However, it is far from clear whether smoking puts people more at risk of being infected in the first place. Smokers appear to be under-represented in cases but this could be for any number of reasons including the age profile of cases and whether smoking status is actually being recorded accurately.

Why do men seem to be more badly affected than women?

“Lots of explanations have been put forward including behavioural factors such as men being less hygienic to biological factors such as reduced immune response to viral infections. The truth is though that we don’t know at the moment.

Are you more likely to pass on coronavirus if you stop smoking?

“When you stop smoking you can develop a cough. If you are also infected with the virus clearly that presents an increased risk of spreading the infection by droplets. But it’s unlikely that this would make an appreciable difference.

Would experts recommend people stop smoking?

“Even with smoking rates as low as 15% in the UK, it is still killing 200 people every day. Stopping smoking regains 4-6 hours of life expectancy for every day of smoking avoided so the answer is – yes – stopping smoking is always going to be an urgent priority.”

Prof Gordon Dougan, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, said:

“It is unlikely that anyone knows for sure yet how smoking might impact on susceptibility to COVID infection, as it is too early to call. We need to compare smokers versus no-smokers or countries with different incidences of smoking, and this will take time 

“However, we do know that smoking does impair normal lung function in many ways.

“The real danger lies in the lung and systems damage COVID causes. It will make people more vulnerable to secondary bacterial and viral infections. It is known that lung damage per say does that. Antibiotic resistance will then be an issue.

“I would recommend that people stop smoking but, having lost my own sister to lung cancer, know it is not easy. I also respect people have a personal choice.”

All our previous output on this subject can be seen at this weblink: 

www.sciencemediacentre.org/tag/covid-19/

Declared interests

None received.

Источник: https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-questions-about-smoking-and-covid-19/
thank you for smoking discussion questions

“Thank You for Smoking” by Jason Reitman

The movie, ‘Thank You for Not Smoking’ has a theme that mainly revolves within the tobacco industry.

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This industry faces challenges due to the obvious reasons that, tobacco smoking is harmful to health, a fact that has resulted in anti-smoking campaigns, which evoke a decline in the number of young smokers.

As the film opens, the Academy of Tobacco Studies lobby, through its Vice President, Nick Naylor embarks on a mission to revive the otherwise collapsing industry. They conduct research and come out questioning the health claims, which discourage cigarette smoking.

To improve product the placement, Nick comes up with an idea of using cartoons in cigarette packets to attract young smokers, which raises many ethical concerns given Nick’s stand.

Nick admits that smoking is injurious to health but disputes the need for more warnings since there is enough public awareness; there cannot be enough public awareness to serious issues like smoking.

He insists on personal choice and responsibility as the key determiners of the morality of smoking. Despite an effort by kidnappers to poison him with nicotine, Nick does not relent in his mission.

He engages in an affair with a news reporter to avoid negative press coverage, an effort that backfires later.

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Naylor wants his son to emulate him and goes with him to a very important mission. The authority disbands this lobby organization later, and Naylor forms a personal lobbying firm. This essay brings out the ethical issues in this movie and arguments to consider them moral or not.

The first ethical issue comes out when Nick is on the talk show, which features a boy suffering from cancer at the age of 15 because of smoking. Nick overturns the situation by claiming they would not be making money from what takes people’s lives.

He thus says that it is not bad if there is no evidence to prove that smoking is addictive or harmful (Waxman, 2006, p.B9). Nick trains his son to believe that whether you are right or wrong, it depends on how you argue.

As such, nothing can ever have concrete proof. Ethically, this argument is counterproductive, and Nick knows this very well.

The second ethical issue comes out when Nick advocates for the use of teens in advertising that discourages smoking but persuasive. The persuasive nature of these advertisement questions whether the move is genuine in the first place.

Ethics surround Nick’s decision to take along with him his son on a journey whose motive is to bring back smoking to movies done by famous actors. The morality of this move depends on whether or not the inclusion of these smoking scenes in the movies convinces one to become a smoker.

The fourth ethical issue revisits Nick’s decision to involve his son in his lobbying fantasies. Accompanied by his son, Nick takes a bribe, which constitutes bundles of notes to the ‘Marlboro man’ who is dying of cancer.

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He goes ahead to tell his son that it is a move to silence the dying man as this would serve as concrete evidence about the effects of smoking (Waxman, 2006, p. B9). The scene brings out the unethical practice of people giving bribes to others in return of the favor.

Moreover, the troubling moral question here is; should children be taught the ways of corruption simply because someone wants to meet his/her gains?

Finally, Nick’s lobbying strategies and ideas highlight the ethics of ‘lobbying,’ as a societal practice. Although it is important in the business world, lobbying can make one make the wrong decision.

When the issue involves one is choosing whether he/she should support an action in which the argument brought forward affects his/her personal decisions by the lobbying individual. As such, only people in the business arena should engage in lobbying.

Conclusion

The movie Thank You for Smoking is a campaigner for the use of tobacco products. It views smoking as a decision that one should make at a personal level and not from fear imposed by threats of death on cigarette packets.

The controversy surrounding the issue raises different ethical and moral issues that people can unravel after looking into all the facts involved.

Reference

Waxman, S. (2006, September 10). The Son Also Directs. The New York Times, pp. B9.

Источник: https://studycorgi.com/thank-you-for-smoking-by-jason-reitman/

Quit Smoking

E-Cigarettes and Vaping — Know the Risks

Even though e-cigarettes are often marketed as being safer than conventional cigarettes, their vapor may still contain a variety of carcinogens and toxic chemicals, including formaldehyde. If you need help quitting vaping, just come talk with someone at Health Promotion.

Learn more about e-cigarettes from the CDC

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The purpose of this clinical research program is to find out if we can make the medication Chantix (varenicline) work even better for more people, by taking it for a few extra weeks before quitting. Receive a free supply of the medication and coaching. Participants will be compensated for their time.

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Источник: https://www.buffalo.edu/studentlife/life-on-campus/health/healthy-decisions/quit-smoking.html

What to Know About Nicotine Use

Nicotine, a stimulant found in tobacco plants, is one of the most heavily used drugs in the United States—and it's just as addictive as cocaine or heroin, according to the surgeon general. Nicotine products are regulated thank you for smoking discussion questions the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). While nicotine is legal, as of 2019, it is illegal to sell or distribute nicotine-containing products to people under 21.

Cigarette smoking is the primary source of nicotine, with one pack of cigarettes providing some 250 "hits" of the extremely addictive substance.

Fewer people over the age of 18 are smoking today than ever before, but it still remains the most preventable cause of death in the United States accounting for 480,000 deaths annually. Estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 2018 indicate that 13.7% of the U.S. adult population smoke cigarettes.

Also Known As: Nicotine products include cigarettes (also known as "smokes"), pipes, cigars (sometimes referred to as "stogies"), chewing tobacco (also known as "dip" or "chew"), snuff, hookahs, and e-cigarettes (also known as "e-cigs" and "vapes").

Drug Class: Nicotine is classified as a stimulant.

Common Side Effects: Nicotine is known to causedecreased appetite, heightened mood, increased heart rate and blood pressure, nausea, diarrhea, better memory, and increased alertness.

How to Recognize Nicotine

Nicotine is rarely sold as a singular product, rather it's most often found as an ingredient in tobacco products like cigarettes and some smoking cessation products like nicotine gum and patches. Nicotine is sold as a liquid for use in e-cigarettes.

The FDA requires warning statement labels on tobacco products: “WARNING: This product contains nicotine. Nicotine is an addictive chemical.”

What Does Nicotine Do?

When a person inhales cigarette smoke, the nicotine in the smoke is rapidly absorbed into the blood and starts affecting the brain within 10 seconds. Once there, nicotine triggers a number of chemical reactions that create temporary feelings of pleasure and concentration. But these sensations are short-lived, subsiding within minutes.

These chemical reactions include the release of catecholamines such as adrenaline, the "fight or flight" hormone. Physically, adrenaline increases heart rate and blood pressure. When this occurs, smokers may experience rapid, shallow breathing and the feeling of a racing heartbeat. Adrenaline also tells the body to dump excess glucose into the bloodstream.

Nicotine also curbs appetite and may contribute to weight thank you for smoking discussion questions in complex ways.

What the Experts Say

Many researchers are beginning to question whether nicotine is any more harmful than a daily dose of caffeine.

To date, there have been studies showing positive effects of nicotine, including decreased tension and increased thinking, as well as the stimulant's potential in warding off cognitive decline into Alzheimer's, delaying the progression of Parkinson's disease, and as a therapeutic approach for ADHD and schizophrenia.

Still, health professionals continue to warn about the dangers of nicotine, especially when used by adolescents whose brains are still developing (until age 25).

Nicotine impacts the parts of the brain that play a role in attention, memory, learning, and brain plasticity.

While cigarette smoking is on the decline, vaping and e-cigarettes are on the rise. The American Academy of Pediatrics warns that "e-cigarettes are threatening to addict a new generation to nicotine."

Off-Label thank you for smoking discussion questions Approved Uses

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was the first pharmacological treatment approved by the FDA for smoking cessation. In fact, studies show that using the nicotine patch can double the rate of a person's smoking cessation success, especially when combined with support.

There are a variety of available NRT products, including:

  • Nicotine patch
  • Nicotine gum
  • Nicotine nasal spray
  • Nicotine inhaler
  • Nicotine lozenges

Pros and Cons of Nicotine Replacement Therapy

Common Side Effects

Nicotine tarrant county credit union e banking a range of effects on both the body and mind, including:

  • Decreased appetite
  • Heightened mood
  • Increased activity in the intestines
  • Increased production of saliva and phlegm
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Better memory
  • Increased alertness

Signs of Use

If your loved one is smoking cigarettes, you’ll likely be able to smell it on them. Detecting vaping can be a bit more difficult—but there are still some signs of use:

  • Devices: E-cigarettes or "vape pens" can look like a thumb drive, pen, or stylus, with holes on each create free t shirt design online This is a classic sign of withdrawal.
  • Sweet smells: Vapor juice is often flavored, so if you suddenly catch a whiff of fruit punch or bubble gum (and there’s no candy around), it could be a red flag.
  • Nosebleeds: Vaping can dry out the nasal passages and cause nose bleeds.
  • Drinking more liquids:The vaporized liquid in e-cigs contains propylene glycol, which attracts and holds water molecules from the mouth, causing constant dry mouth.

Can You Overdose on Nicotine?

Nicotine is poisonous and overdose is possible, though not common. Most often, nicotine poisoning occurs when children mistake nicotine gum or lozenges for candy.

If you or someone you care about experiences the following signs of nicotine overdose, call 911 or poison control (800-222-1222) immediately:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Vomiting
  • Fainting
  • Headache
  • Weakness
  • Increased or decreased heart rate

Common Questions

Many people think that nicotine causes cancer—but the jury is still out. Nicotine is certainly a harmful, addictive substance but it is mainly the tar and the other toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke that are linked to cancer.

Research does suggest that nicotine can increase the risk of cancer due to its damaging effects on DNA, although the risk is much lower than those from smoking cigarettes. A study by the National Cancer Institute found that those who were most addicted to nicotine—smoking a cigarette within five minutes of waking up—had the greatest risk of developing lung cancer.

Given the addictive nature of nicotine, some people may think you can get hooked on the nicotine in smoking cessation products like the patch or nicotine gum and lozenges. While possible, most people find it easy to get off nicotine medicine after several months. In general, these products deliver nicotine to your body more slowly and in smaller doses. 

Many teens think that using e-cigarettes is safer, however, they still contain high levels of nicotine. The brand JUUL packs perhaps the most potent dose: One pod contains roughly 20 cigarettes worth of nicotine and the product claims to deliver the addictive substance 2.7 times faster than other e-cigarettes.

Tolerance, Dependence, and Withdrawal

Nicotine is extremely addictive and, when used regularly, your body and mind learn to expect a certain amount of nicotine each day—and if it doesn't get it, withdrawal can be intense. You can quickly build a tolerance to nicotine, needing more to reach the desired effect. This is one reason why it's so hard (but not impossible) to quit smoking.

How Long Does Nicotine Stay in Your System?

Nicotine (in the form of a cigarette, pipe, or e-cigarette smoke) is mostly absorbed into the body through the lungs as well as the membranes in the mouth and throat. It can also be absorbed in your gastrointestinal tract (via chewing tobacco, nicotine gum, and lozenges) or your skin if you use a nicotine patch.

Nicotine is mainly metabolized in the liver and is excreted via urine through the kidneys as well as in feces. How long it stays in your system depends on many factors, including age, weight, type, frequency of use, and hydration and physical activity levels.

That said, the estimated timeframe is as follows:

  • Urine test: Two to four days
  • Blood test: Two to four days
  • Saliva test: One to four days
  • Hair follicle test: Up to 90 days

Many routine drug tests screen for nicotine.

How Long Nicotine Stays in Your System

Addiction

Nicotine is a highly addictive substance that's found in all tobacco products, including cigarettes, pipes, cigars, chewing tobacco, snuff, hookahs, e-cigarettes, and other vaping devices.

Nicotine activates the same reward pathways in the brain that other drugs such as cocaine or amphetamines do, although to a thank you for smoking discussion questions degree. Research has shown that nicotine increases the level of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter that is responsible for feelings of pleasure and well-being.

The Truth About Smoking Pleasure and Nicotine Addiction

Withdrawal

As the nicotine level drops in the blood, people may feel edgy and agitated—the start of nicotine withdrawal. The acute effects of nicotine wear off within minutes, so people who smoke must continue dosing themselves frequently throughout the day to maintain the pleasurable effects of nicotine and to prevent nicotine withdrawal, which causes a host of physical and psychological symptoms:

  • Cravings thank you for smoking discussion questions smoke
  • Irritability, crankiness
  • Insomnia
  • Fatigue
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Headache
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Constipation, gas, stomach pain
  • Dry mouth
  • Sore tongue and/or gums
  • Postnasal drip
  • Tightness in the chest

7 Tips for Surviving Nicotine Withdrawal

How to Get Help

Statistics show that only a small percentage (approximately 7%) of people who try to quit smoking without support are still smoke-free a year later. However, those with a quit program in place that includes education about nicotine addiction and a solid support group, do much better.

Whether you prefer to quit cold turkey or choose to use a quit aid to help you stop smoking, it's important to recognize that recovery from nicotine addiction is a process of gradual release over time.

Quitting nicotine doesn't happen overnight, but with perseverance, freedom from nicotine addiction is doable and will pay you back with benefits that go well beyond what you can probably imagine.

How to Quit Smoking for Good

Thanks for your feedback!

Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our target exchange gift card for cash process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Newly Signed Legislation Raises Federal Minimum Age of Sale of Tobacco Products to 21. Food and Drug Administration. Updated January 15, 2020.

  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States. Updated November 18, 2019.

  3. Leading Medical Groups Applaud Surgeon General's Report on E-Cigarettes and Youth. American Academy of Pediatrics. December 8, 2016.

  4. Duke University Health System. Smokers Double Their Quit Rate By Wearing Nicotine Patch Before Stopping. Updated January 20, 2016.

  5. National Cancer Institute. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer. 2014.

  6. Willett JG, Bennett M, Hair EC, et al. Recognition, use, and perceptions of JUUL among youth and young adults. Tob Control. 2019;28(1):115-116. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054273

  7. Mishra A, Chaturvedi P, Datta S, Sinukumar S, Joshi P, Garg A. Harmful effects of nicotine. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. 2015;36(1):24-31. doi:10.4103/0971-5851.151771

  8. National Institutes of Health. Managing Withdrawal. smokefree.gov.

Источник: https://www.verywellmind.com/nicotine-addiction-101-2825018

Thank You For Smoking [Motion picture]. (2006). USA: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment.


Released in 2006 and based on Christopher Buckley’s 1994 novel of the same title, Thank You For Smoking is a film that provides a cynical sense of humor to the lobbying industry, specifically tobacco lobbying. The main character, Nick Naylor (played by Aaron Eckhart, spins on behalf of cigarettes while trying to remain a role model for thank you for smoking discussion questions twelve-year-old son. This in itself poses a problem as he has to find the balance between doing his job and protecting his son.

The primary ethical issue in this film is actions of Nick Naylor, the chief spokesman for the Academy of Tobacco Studies, which is a tobacco industry-lobbying firm that promotes the benefits of cigarettes. He has a clear lack of ethical behavior and almost takes pride in his ability to ignore moral and ethical guidelines. He describes this as “moral flexibility”. His strong suit is spinning the truth in arguments so that he never appears wrong. At one point, in a conversation with his son, he gives the example of arguing whether chocolate or vanilla is the better flavor. He explains to his son that it doesn’t matter which is actually better, but that people should have the right to thank you for smoking discussion questions which they prefer because that is the definition of freedom. He continues on to explain that it doesn’t matter whether he convinces people that vanilla is the better flavor, as long as he convinces them that the person arguing for chocolate is wrong (because this means that he, in turn, is right). This is the perfect example of his “moral flexibility” being applied to a situation much less controversial than cigarettes.

In the introduction to the movie, Naylor discusses the inner-workings of the Academy of Tobacco Studies and mentions their team of “sharks” (lawyers), and how they’re drafted out of law school and bribed into the company with timeshares and sports cars. This introduces another component of Naylor’s lack of ethics. He and the company he works for are not beyond being “morally flexible” themselves – they draft people to work for them and bribe them to follow the same (lack of) ethical guidelines.

Another ethical issue in Thank You For Smoking involves journalist Heather Holloway (played by Katie Holmes), who is pursuing a story about Nick Naylor. She goes to incredible lengths to find out more about Nick (by sleeping with him on multiple occasions), and loses her credibility in the process. She publishes an article in “The Washington Probe” revealing all of Nick’s secrets, including his meetings with the “MOD Squad” (Merchants of Death – firearm lobbyist Bobby Jay Bliss and alcohol lobbyist Polly Bailey), and the hush money he delivered to a former cigarette representative who contracted lung cancer as a result. This issue is not only prominent in the movie but in the real world as well, where the publishing of “off record” and unsubstantiated information is prevalent.

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Источник: https://mediaethicsmorning.wordpress.com/2015/03/05/ethical-analysis-thank-you-for-smoking/

Death for sale

Naylor's opponent in the film is Sen. Ortolan Finistirre (William H. Macy), a Vermont environmentalist whose office desk is covered with his collection of maple syrup bottles. The senator has introduced legislation requiring a skull and crossbones to be displayed on every cigarette pack, replacing the government health warning. The symbol is better than the words, he explains, because "They want those who do not speak English to die."

Reitman's screenplay is based on a novel by Christopher Buckley (son of William F.), and retains a literary flavor rare in a time when many movies are aimed at people who move their lips when they think. Consider this exchange between Nick and his young son, who wants help on a school assignment:

Joey: "Dad, why is the American government the best government?"

Nick: "Because of our endless appeals system."

Or this nostalgia by Duvall, as the Captain: "I was in Korea shooting Chinese in 1952. Now they're our best customers. Next time we won't have to shoot so many of them."

What I admired above all in "Thank You thank you for smoking discussion questions Smoking" was its style. I enjoyed the satire; I laughed a lot thank you for smoking discussion questions it's a very funny movie, but laughs are common and satire, as we all know, is what closes on "Saturday Night Live." Style is something modern movies can't always find the time for. I am thinking for some reason of "The Thin Man" (1934), a movie that works in large part because of the way William Powell and Myrna Loy hold themselves, move, and speak; their attitude creates a space between the vulgarities of the plot and the elegance of their personalities, and in that space the humor resides. Their lives are their works of art. Nick Naylor is like them, not egotistical or conceited so much as an objective observer of his own excellence. It is the purpose of the movie to humble him, but he never grovels, and even in a particularly nasty situation is still depending on his ability to spin anything to his advantage. If you want to remake "The Thin Man," I say Aaron Eckhart and Catherine Keener.

Should the movie be angrier? I lost both of my parents to cigarettes, but I doubt that more anger would improve it. Everyone knows cigarettes can kill you, but they remain on sale and raise billions of dollars in taxes. The target of the movie is not so much tobacco as lobbying in general, which along with open post office near me today and spin-control makes a great many evils palatable to the population. How can you tell when something is not good for you? Because of the efforts made to convince you it is harmless or beneficial. Consider the incredible, edible egg. "Drink responsibly." Prescription drug prices being doubled "to fund research for better health."

Источник: https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/thank-you-for-smoking-2006

expert reaction to questions about smoking and COVID-19

There have been questions from journalists about smoking and COVID-19.

Prof Ian Hall, Professor of Molecular Medicine, University of Roslyn savings bank east meadow, said:

“The most likely explanation for smoking being a risk factor for COVID-19 is that people who smoke are more likely to develop chronic lung diseases such as COPD and also cardiovascular disease, and therefore are more likely to have the conditions which are known to be associated with a poorer outcome from COVID19.

“Men seeming to be worse affected than women might be partly explained by the fact that men are more likely to have these associated conditions, because they historically were more likely to smoke. However, I am not convinced this completely explains the increased risk of severe disease in men, so it seems possible there may be some other as yet unidentified factor playing a role.

“Although some people do notice a slight increase in their cough when they stop smoking, it is temporary, and there are obvious long term benefits from stopping smoking.  There is no evidence that anyone stopping smoking is at more risk of transmitting disease, so I would always recommend that smokers should stop smoking.”

Dr James Gill, Locum GP & Honorary Clinical Lecturer, Warwick Medical School, said:

“Smoking is a significant risk factor for coronavirus infections and, in fact, infections generally. There are many interlocking factors as to why smoking reduces the body’s ability to fight an infection – from the ability to get oxygen from blood to tissues, through to the increased levels of carbon monoxide in the blood.

“Possibly one of the biggest reasons smokers are at increased risk of respiratory infections is the impairment and death of the cilia in the airways and lungs.

“In simple terms, the airways are lined with cilia – small brush-like hairs – these structures provide an absolutely vital function in moving mucous, inhaled debris and potentially infectious agents out of the airways and lungs before an infection can take hold.

“The chemicals from cigarettes, when inhaled, have two serious effects on these cilia – firstly they reduce the cilia thank you for smoking discussion questions, meaning it is harder to move mucous out of the lungs. Over time, prolonged inhaled smoke kills these cilia, drastically increasing the risk of infection.

“There is good news! Even stopping smoking for just 24hrs is seen to have a huge improvement on the function of remaining cilia. The longer you’ve stopped smoking, the greater your recovery. So it is never too late to stop smoking – especially now.

“People can make a huge contribution to their own protection against COVID19 by stopping smoking – even if it is simply during this pandemic. Not only that, if you live with some who smokes, you will be affected by their smoking, even if they go outside their cigarette. Stopping smoking will help protect yourself, the people around you, and potentially reduce the strain on the NHS too.

“Vaping is also preferable to smoking due to the lack of tar and other toxic chemicals, however it is possible that the hot gases involved in vaping may also have a negative effect on the cilia and overall lungs function, although this is likely to be far less harmful to the body’s respiratory system than smoking. But we need more research to fully understand this impact.

“Even if you only pause smoking during this crisis, that is still going to be a huge benefit to your lungs, and reduce your risk of potentially developing COVID19 if unfortunately exposed to coronavirus.”

Dr Thank you for smoking discussion questions Wingfield, Senior Clinical Lecturer and Honorary Consultant Physician, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), said:

“There is strong evidence that smoking tobacco is associated with an increased risk of respiratory viral infection, such as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Smoking both increases someone’s vulnerability to infection (repetitive touching of hand-to-face and hand-to-mouth) and reduces their ability to fight against it resulting in more severe disease.

“People who smoke regularly and for some years are more likely to have higher rates of hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, problems with their circulation, and chronic lung disease (lung damage and decreased lung capacity), all of which themselves are risk factors for severe Covid-19.

“While the evidence on e-cigarettes is still developing, it is clear that vaping is far less harmful to the body’s respiratory system than smoking.

“There is high quality evidence that smoking cessation leads to significant health benefits. Smoking cessation at any time represents a huge opportunity to improve people’s life expectancy. Decreasing rates of smoking rates at a country level can have a huge positive public health impact. Now is as good a moment as any to give up and smokers might be more receptive to stop at the present time!”

Dr Caitlin Notley, Chief Investigator for The NeSCi Study – Neonatal unit Smoking Cessation intervention development, University of East Anglia, said:

“The spread of COVID-19 has been deeply concerning and raises particular questions for smokers, ex-smokers and people choosing to use less harmful alternative to smoking, such as e-cigarettes.

“Evidence on the relationship between smoking and the progression to severe conditions of COVID-19 is lacking, but beginning to emerge. Some clear facts are:

“‘Vulnerable’ groups, i.e. those with health conditionssuch as cardiovascular and respiratory disease, diabetes are more likely to be smokers or ex-smokers. This might suggest that smokers are more at risk of suffering from severe reactions to the COVID019 virus. Given this, it is more important than ever that people are supported to quit smoking.

“Pregnant women are classified as a vulnerable group, especially at risk of exposure to the COVID-19 virus, both for their own health and because we do not know what impact exposure to the virus may ode to the west wind imagery on the developing foetus. As smoking further increases vulnerability, it is imperative that pregnant smokers are supported to quit smoking. The stop smoking service can offer support to pregnant women throughout pregnancy and is offering remote appointments as well as nicotine replacement therapy. Alternatively, e-cigarettes are an option that pregnant women might consider to help them quit smoking.

“For ex-smokers, particularly those who have recently quit, there may be an increased risk of smoking relapse, as people are stressed and anxious in the light of the COVID-19 situation, and stress is correlated with smoking relapse. It is important that ex-smokers are encouraged to remain smokefree.

“Similarly, vulnerable groups, including pregnant women who quit smoking during pregnancy, may be at increased risk of relapse as they may feel even more stressed and isolated after the birth of their baby than under usual conditions where social distancing is not enforced. Postpartum support encouraging women to stay smokefree is especially important during the COVID-19 outbreak.

“E-cigarettes are the most popular consumer option for stop smoking support, and they are effective. People should be encouraged to switch to vaping rather than continuing to smoke tobacco.

“There is no evidence that vaping increases the risk of infection or progression to severe conditions of COVID-19. However, Vapers with a long previous smoking history could exhibit conditions seen in vulnerable patients. However, this would not be an effect of vaping but of previous smoking. Since completely switching from smoking to vaping improves cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, smokers who switch to vaping might be expected to have a better prognosis if infected by COVID-19.

“There is a concern that as people are self-isolating in their homes, children and non-smokers may be at increased risk of second-hand smoke exposure if living with a smoker. Second-hand smoke exposure poses a significant risk to health. Smokers should be encouraged to quit or switch to vaping in order to reduce others exposure to second-hand smoke.

“It is concerning that vape shops have closed during the current societal lockdown situation. People who have stopped smoking and switched to vaping can still access the stop smoking service for support, and can still purchase e liquid and vaping consumables online, without having to come into contact with other people.”

Prof Robert West, Department of Behavioural Science and Health at University College London, said:

Does smoking appear to be a risk factor for COVID-19?

“One would expect smoking to be a risk factor for severity of the disease having been infected simply because smokers are more likely to have pre-existing cardiovascular and respiratory disease. However, it is far from clear whether smoking puts people more at risk of being infected in the first place. Smokers appear to be under-represented in cases but this could be for any number of reasons including the age profile of cases and whether smoking status is actually thank you for smoking discussion questions recorded accurately.

Why do men seem to be more badly affected than women?

“Lots of explanations have been put forward including behavioural factors such as men being less hygienic to biological factors such as reduced immune response to viral infections. The truth is though that we don’t know at the moment.

Are you more likely to pass on coronavirus if you stop smoking?

“When you stop smoking you can develop a cough. If you are also infected with the virus clearly that presents an increased risk of spreading the infection by droplets. But it’s unlikely that this would make an appreciable difference.

Would experts recommend people stop smoking?

“Even with smoking rates as low as 15% in the UK, it is still killing 200 people every day. Stopping smoking regains 4-6 hours of life expectancy for every day of smoking avoided so the answer is – yes – stopping smoking is always going to be an urgent priority.”

Prof Gordon Dougan, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, said:

“It is unlikely that anyone knows for sure yet how smoking might impact on susceptibility to COVID infection, as it is too early to call. We need to compare smokers versus no-smokers or countries with different incidences of smoking, and this will take time 

“However, we do know that smoking does impair normal lung function in many ways.

“The real danger lies in the lung and systems damage COVID causes. It will make people more vulnerable to secondary bacterial and viral infections. It is known that lung damage per say does that. Antibiotic resistance will then be an issue.

“I would recommend that people stop smoking but, having lost my own sister to lung cancer, know it is not easy. I also respect people have a personal choice.”

All our previous output on this subject can be seen at this weblink: 

www.sciencemediacentre.org/tag/covid-19/

Declared interests

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Источник: https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-questions-about-smoking-and-covid-19/

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