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Bald eagle

Bird of prey species of North America

"American eagle" redirects here. For other uses, see American eagle (disambiguation) and Bald Eagle (disambiguation).

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two known subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting.

The bald eagle is an opportunistic feeder which subsists mainly on fish, which it swoops down and snatches from the water with its talons. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any animal species, up to 4 m (13 ft) deep, 2.5 m (8.2 ft) wide, and 1 metric ton (1.1 short tons) in weight. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years.

Bald eagles are not actually bald; the name derives from an older meaning of the word, "white headed". The adult is mainly brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males. The yellow beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown.

The bald eagle is the national bird of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal. In the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States. Populations have since recovered, and the species was removed from the U.S. government's list of endangered species on July 12, 1995, and transferred to the list of threatened species. It was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the contiguous states on June 28, 2007.

Description

The plumage of an adult bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head and tail. The tail is moderately long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in plumage coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species, in that females are 25% larger than males.[3] The beak, feet and irises are bright yellow. The legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the hind toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes.[4] The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere.[5] The adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) (from far outside the bald eagle's range) also has a brown body (albeit of somewhat more rufous hue), white head and tail, but differs from the bald eagle in having a white chest and black tip to the bill.[6]

The plumage of the immature is a dark brown overlaid with messy white streaking until the fifth (rarely fourth, very rarely third) year, when it reaches sexual maturity.[3][4] Immature bald eagles are distinguishable from the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the only other very large, non-vulturine raptorial bird in North America, in that the former has a larger, more protruding head with a larger beak, straighter edged wings which are held flat (not slightly raised) and with a stiffer wing beat and feathers which do not completely cover the legs. When seen well, the golden eagle is distinctive in plumage with a more solid warm brown color than an immature bald eagle, with a reddish-golden patch to its nape and (in immature birds) a highly contrasting set of white squares on the wing.[7] Another distinguishing feature of the immature bald eagle over the mature bird is its black, yellow-tipped beak; the mature eagle has a fully yellow beak.

The bald eagle has sometimes been considered the largest true raptor (accipitrid) in North America. The only larger species of raptor-like bird is the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), a New World vulture which today is not generally considered a taxonomic ally of true accipitrids.[8] However, the golden eagle, averaging 4.18 kg (9.2 lb) and 63 cm (25 in) in wing chord length in its American race (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis), is merely 455 g (1.003 lb) lighter in mean body mass and exceeds the bald eagle in mean wing chord length by around 3 cm (1.2 in).[6][9] Additionally, the bald eagle's close cousins, the relatively longer-winged but shorter-tailed white-tailed eagle and the overall larger Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), may, rarely, wander to coastal Alaska from Asia.[6]

This eagle has a sizable wingspan

The bald eagle has a body length of 70–102 cm (28–40 in). Typical wingspan is between 1.8 and 2.3 m (5 ft 11 in and 7 ft 7 in) and mass is normally between 3 and 6.3 kg (6.6 and 13.9 lb).[6] Females are about 25% larger than males, averaging as much as 5.6 kg (12 lb), and against the males' average weight of 4.1 kg (9.0 lb).[3][10][11][12]

The size of the bird varies by location and generally corresponds with Bergmann's rule, since the species increases in size further away from the Equator and the tropics. For example, eagles from South Carolina average 3.27 kg (7.2 lb) in mass and 1.88 m (6 ft 2 in) in wingspan, smaller than their northern counterparts.[13] One field guide in Florida listed similarly small sizes for bald eagles there, at about 4.13 kg (9.1 lb).[14] Of intermediate size, 117 migrant bald eagles in Glacier National Park were found to average 4.22 kg (9.3 lb) but this was mostly (possibly post-dispersal) juvenile eagles, with 6 adults here averaging 4.3 kg (9.5 lb).[15] Wintering eagles in Arizona (winter weights are usually the highest through the year since like many raptors they spend the highest percentage of time foraging during winter) were found to average 4.74 kg (10.4 lb).[16]

The largest eagles are from Alaska, where large females may weigh more than 7 kg (15 lb) and span 2.44 m (8 ft 0 in) across the wings.[5][17] A survey of adult weights in Alaska showed that females there weighed on average 5.35 kg (11.8 lb), respectively, and males weighed 4.23 kg (9.3 lb) against immatures which averaged 5.09 kg (11.2 lb) and 4.05 kg (8.9 lb) in the two sexes.[18][19] An Alaskan adult female eagle that was considered outsized weighed some 7.4 kg (16 lb).[20] R.S. Palmer listed a record from 1876 in Wyoming County, New York of an enormous adult bald eagle that was shot and reportedly scaled 8.2 kg (18 lb).[19] Among standard linear measurements, the wing chord is 51.5–69 cm (20.3–27.2 in), the tail is 23–37 cm (9.1–14.6 in) long, and the tarsus is 8 to 11 cm (3.1 to 4.3 in).[6][21] The culmen reportedly ranges from 3 to 7.5 cm (1.2 to 3.0 in), while the measurement from the gape to the tip of the bill is 7–9 cm (2.8–3.5 in).[21][22] The bill size is unusually variable as Alaskan eagles could be up to twice the bill length of "southern birds" (i.e. from Georgia, Louisiana, Florida), with means in between the sexes of 6.83 cm (2.69 in) and 4.12 cm (1.62 in) in culmen length, respectively, from these two areas.[23][24]

Bald eagle (0:02)

A recording of a bald eagle at Yellowstone National Park


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The call consists of weak staccato, chirping whistles, kleek kik ik ik ik, somewhat similar in cadence to a gull's call. The calls of young birds tend to be more harsh and shrill than those of adults.[6][7]

Taxonomy

The bald eagle is placed in the genus Haliaeetus (sea eagles), and gets both its common and specific scientific names from the distinctive appearance of the adult's head. Bald in the English name is from the older usage meaning "white" rather than "hairless", referring to the white head and tail feathers and their contrast with the darker body, as in piebald.[25] The genus name is New Latin: Haliaeetus (from the Ancient Greek: ἁλιάετος, romanized: haliaetos, lit. 'sea eagle'),[26] and the specific name, leucocephalus, is Latinized (Ancient Greek: λευκός, romanized: leukos, lit. 'white')[27] and (κεφαλή, kephalḗ, 'head').[28][29]

The bald eagle was one of the many species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae, under the name Falco leucocephalus.[30]

There are two recognized subspecies of bald eagle:[3][31]

  • H. l. leucocephalus(Linnaeus, 1766) is the nominate subspecies. It is found in the southern United States and Baja California Peninsula.[32]
  • H. l. washingtoniensis(Audubon, 1827), synonym H. l. alascanus Townsend, 1897, the northern subspecies, is larger than southern nominate leucocephalus. It is found in the northern United States, Canada and Alaska.[3][32]

The bald eagle forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle of Eurasia. This species pair consists of a white-headed and a tan-headed species of roughly equal size; the white-tailed eagle also has overall somewhat paler brown body plumage. The two species fill the same ecological niche in their respective ranges. The pair diverged from other sea eagles at the beginning of the Early Miocene (c. 10 Ma BP) at the latest, but possibly as early as the Early/Middle Oligocene, 28 Ma BP, if the most ancient fossil record is correctly assigned to this genus.[33]

Range

The bald eagle's natural range covers most of North America, including most of Canada, all of the continental United States, and northern Mexico. It is the only sea eagleendemic to North America. Occupying varied habitats from the bayous of Louisiana to the Sonoran Desert and the eastern deciduous forests of Quebec and New England, northern birds are migratory, while southern birds are resident, remaining on their breeding territory all year. At minimum population, in the 1950s, it was largely restricted to Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, northern and eastern Canada, and Florida.[34] From 1966 to 2015 bald eagle numbers increased substantially throughout its winter and breeding ranges,[35] and as of 2018 the species nests in every continental state and province in the United States and Canada.[36]

The majority of bald eagles in Canada are found along the British Columbia coast while large populations are found in the forests of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario.[37] Bald eagles also congregate in certain locations in winter. From November until February, one to two thousand birds winter in Squamish, British Columbia, about halfway between Vancouver and Whistler. The birds primarily gather along the Squamish and Cheakamus Rivers, attracted by the salmon spawning in the area.[38] Similar congregations of wintering bald eagles at open lakes and rivers, wherein fish are readily available for hunting or scavenging, are observed in the northern United States.[39]

It has occurred as a vagrant twice in Ireland; a juvenile was shot illegally in Fermanagh on January 11, 1973 (misidentified at first as a white-tailed eagle), and an exhausted juvenile was captured in Kerry on November 15, 1987.[40]

Habitat

In flight during a licensed performance in Ontario, Canada
During training at the Canadian Raptor Conservancy, a facility licensed by the province of Ontario

The bald eagle occurs during its breeding season in virtually any kind of American wetland habitat such as seacoasts, rivers, large lakes or marshes or other large bodies of open water with an abundance of fish. Studies have shown a preference for bodies of water with a circumference greater than 11 km (7 mi), and lakes with an area greater than 10 km2 (4 sq mi) are optimal for breeding bald eagles.[41]

The bald eagle typically requires old-growth and mature stands of coniferous or hardwood trees for perching, roosting, and nesting. Tree species reportedly is less important to the eagle pair than the tree's height, composition and location.[42] Perhaps of paramount importance for this species is an abundance of comparatively large trees surrounding the body of water. Selected trees must have good visibility, be over 20 m (66 ft) tall, an open structure, and proximity to prey. If nesting trees are in standing water such as in a mangrove swamp, the nest can be located fairly low, at as low 6 m (20 ft) above the ground.[43] In a more typical tree standing on dry ground, nests may be located from 16 to 38 m (52 to 125 ft) in height. In Chesapeake Bay, nesting trees averaged 82 cm (32 in) in diameter and 28 m (92 ft) in total height, while in Florida, the average nesting tree stands 23 m (75 ft) high and is 23 cm (9.1 in) in diameter.[44][45] Trees used for nesting in the Greater Yellowstone area average 27 m (89 ft) high.[46] Trees or forest used for nesting should have a canopy cover of no more than 60%, and no less than 20%, and be in close proximity to water.[41] Most nests have been found within 200 m (660 ft) of open water. The greatest distance from open water recorded for a bald eagle nest was over 3 km (1.9 mi), in Florida.[8]

Bald eagle nests are often very large in order to compensate for size of the birds. The largest recorded nest was found in Florida in 1963, and was measured at nearly 10 feet wide and 20 feet deep.[47]

In Florida, nesting habitats often consist of Mangrove swamps, the shorelines of lakes and rivers, pinelands, seasonally flooded flatwoods, hardwood swamps, and open prairies and pastureland with scattered tall trees. Favored nesting trees in Florida are slash pines (Pinus elliottii), longleaf pines (P. palustris), loblolly pines (P. taeda) and cypress trees, but for the southern coastal areas where mangroves are usually used.[43] In Wyoming, groves of mature cottonwoods or tall pines found along streams and rivers are typical bald eagle nesting habitats. Wyoming eagles may inhabit habitat types ranging from large, old-growth stands of ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) to narrow strips of riparian trees surrounded by rangeland.[8] In Southeast Alaska, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) provided 78% of the nesting trees used by eagles, followed by hemlocks (Tsuga) at 20%.[42] Increasingly, eagles nest in man-made reservoirs stocked with fish.[43]

With freshly caught fish in Kodiak

The bald eagle is usually quite sensitive to human activity while nesting, and is found most commonly in areas with minimal human disturbance. It chooses sites more than 1.2 km (0.75 mi) from low-density human disturbance and more than 1.8 km (1.1 mi) from medium- to high-density human disturbance.[41] However, bald eagles will occasionally nest in large estuaries or secluded groves within major cities, such as Hardtack Island on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon or John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which are surrounded by a great quantity of human activity.[48][49] Even more contrary to the usual sensitivity to disturbance, a family of bald eagles moved to the Harlem neighborhood in New York City in 2010.[50]

While wintering, bald eagles tend to be less habitat and disturbance sensitive. They will commonly congregate at spots with plentiful perches and waters with plentiful prey and (in northern climes) partially unfrozen waters. Alternately, non-breeding or wintering bald eagles, particularly in areas with a lack of human disturbance, spend their time in various upland, terrestrial habitats sometimes quite far away from waterways. In the northern half of North America (especially the interior portion), this terrestrial inhabitance by bald eagles tends to be especially prevalent because unfrozen water may not be accessible. Upland wintering habitats often consist of open habitats with concentrations of medium-sized mammals, such as prairies, meadows or tundra, or open forests with regular carrion access.[8][42]

Behavior

The bald eagle is a powerful flier, and soars on thermal convection currents. It reaches speeds of 56–70 km/h (35–43 mph) when gliding and flapping, and about 48 km/h (30 mph) while carrying fish.[51] Its dive speed is between 120–160 km/h (75–99 mph), though it seldom dives vertically.[52] Regarding their flying abilities, despite being morphologically less well adapted to faster flight than golden eagles (especially during dives), the bald eagle is considered surprisingly maneuverable in flight. Bounty hunters shooting from helicopters opined that they were far more difficult to hunt while flying than golden eagles as they would turn, double back or dive as soon as approached. Bald eagles have also been recorded catching up to and then swooping under geese in flight, turning over and thrusting their talons into the other bird's breast.[19] It is partially migratory, depending on location. If its territory has access to open water, it remains there year-round, but if the body of water freezes during the winter, making it impossible to obtain food, it migrates to the south or to the coast. A number of populations are subject to post-breeding dispersal, mainly in juveniles; Florida eagles, for example, will disperse northwards in the summer.[53] The bald eagle selects migration routes which take advantage of thermals, updrafts, and food resources. During migration, it may ascend in a thermal and then glide down, or may ascend in updrafts created by the wind against a cliff or other terrain. Migration generally takes place during the daytime, usually between the local hours of 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., when thermals are produced by the sun.[4]

Diet and feeding

The bald eagle is an opportunistic carnivore with the capacity to consume a great variety of prey. Throughout their range, fish often comprise the majority of the eagle's diet.[54] In 20 food habit studies across the species' range, fish comprised 56% of the diet of nesting eagles, birds 28%, mammals 14% and other prey 2%.[55] More than 400 species are known to be included in the bald eagle's prey spectrum, far more than its ecological equivalent in the Old World, the white-tailed eagle, is known to take. Despite its considerably lower population, the bald eagle may come in second amongst all North American accipitrids, slightly behind only the red-tailed hawk, in number of prey species recorded.[19][55][56][57]

In Southeast Alaska, fish comprise approximately 66% of the year-around diet of bald eagles and 78% of the prey brought to the nest by the parents.[58] Eagles living in the Columbia River Estuary in Oregon were found to rely on fish for 90% of their dietary intake.[59] At least 100 species of fish have been recorded in the bald eagle's diet.[56] In the Pacific Northwest, spawning trout and salmon provide most of the bald eagles' diet from late summer throughout fall.[60] Southeast Alaskan eagles largely prey on pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch) and, more locally, sockeye salmon (O. nerka), with Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), due to their large size (12 to 18 kg (26 to 40 lb) average adult size) probably being taken only as carrion.[58] Also important in the estuaries and shallow coastlines of southern Alaska are Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus).[58]

In Oregon's Columbia River Estuary, the most significant prey species were largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) (17.3% of the prey selected there), American shad (Alosa sapidissima; 13%) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10.8%).[59] Eagles living in the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland were found to subsist largely on American gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) and white bass (Morone chrysops).[62] Floridian eagles have been reported to prey on catfish, most prevalently the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) and any species in the genus Ictalurus as well as mullet, trout, needlefish, and eels.[8][43][63] Wintering eagles on the Platte River in Nebraska preyed mainly on American gizzard shads and common carp.[64] From observation in the Columbia River, 58% of the fish were caught alive by the eagle, 24% were scavenged as carcasses and 18% were pirated away from other animals.[59]

Prey fish targeted by bald eagles are often quite large. When experimenters offered fish of different sizes in the breeding season around Lake Britton in California, fish measuring 34 to 38 cm (13 to 15 in) were taken 71.8% of the time by parent eagles while fish measuring 23 to 27.5 cm (9.1 to 10.8 in) were chosen only 25% of the time.[65] At nests around Lake Superior, the remains of fish (mostly suckers) were found to average 35.4 cm (13.9 in) in total length.[66] In the Columbia River estuary, most preyed on by eagles were estimated to measure between 30 and 60 cm (12 and 24 in) in length, and carp flown with (laboriously) were up to 86 cm (34 in) in length.[59] Much larger freshwater fish, such as carp weighing 9 kg (20 lb), salmon weighing around 11 kg (24 lb), and large muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) was taken.[67][68][69] Execptionally large marine fish such as Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) have been recorded among bald eagle prey though probably are only taken as young, as small, newly mature fish, or as carrion.[57][70]

A bald eagle on a whale carcass.

Benthic fishes such as catfish are usually consumed after they die and float to the surface, though while temporarily swimming in the open may be more vulnerable to predation than most fish since their eyes focus downwards.[62] Bald eagles also regularly exploit water turbines which produce battered, stunned or dead fish easily consumed.[71] Predators who leave behind scraps of dead fish that they kill, such as brown bears (Ursus arctos), gray wolves (Canis lupus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), may be habitually followed in order to scavenge the kills secondarily.[58] Once North Pacific salmon die off after spawning, usually local bald eagles eat salmon carcasses almost exclusively. Eagles in Washington need to consume 489 g (1.078 lb) of fish each day for survival, with adults generally consuming more than juveniles and thus reducing potential energy deficiency and increasing survival during winter.[72]

Behind fish, the next most significant prey base for bald eagles are other waterbirds. The contribution of such birds to the eagle's diet is variable, depending on the quantity and availability of fish near the water's surface. Waterbirds can seasonally comprise from 7% to 80% of the prey selection for eagles in certain localities.[59][73] Overall, birds are the most diverse group in the bald eagle's prey spectrum, with 200 prey species recorded.[19][56][57] Exceptionally, in the Greater Yellowstone area, birds were eaten as regularly as fish year-around, with both prey groups comprising 43% of the studied dietary intake.[46] Preferred avian prey includes grebes, alcids, ducks, gulls, coots, herons, egrets, and geese.[74]

A nesting colony of kittiwakes and murres, with a juvenile bald eagle

Bird species most preferred as prey by eagles tend to be medium-sized, such as western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and American coots (Fulica americana) as such prey is relatively easy for the much larger eagles to catch and fly with.[8][59]American herring gull (Larus smithsonianus) are the favored avian prey species for eagles living around Lake Superior.[66] Larger waterbirds are occasionally prey as well, with wintering emperor geese (Chen canagica) and snow geese (C. caerulescens), which gather in large groups, sometimes becoming regular prey.[21][75] Other large waterbirds hunted at least occasionally by bald eagles have included adults of common loons (Gavis immer),[76]great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus),[77]sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis),[78]great blue herons (Ardea herodias),[55]Canada geese (Branta canadensis),[62]brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis),[43] and fledgling American white pelicans (P. erythrorhynchos).[79] Colony nesting seabirds may be especially vulnerable to predation. Due to easy accessibility and lack of formidable nest defense by such species, bald eagles are capable of preying on such seabirds at all ages, from eggs to mature adults, and can effectively cull large portions of a colony.[80]

Along some portions of the North Pacific coastline, bald eagles which had historically preyed mainly kelp-dwelling fish and supplementally sea otter (Enhydra lutris) pups are now preying mainly on seabird colonies since both the fish (possibly due to overfishing) and otters (cause unknown) have had precipitous population declines, causing concern for seabird conservation.[81] Because of this more extensive predation, some biologist have expressed concern that murres are heading for a "conservation collision" due to heavy eagle predation.[80] Eagles have been confirmed to attack nocturnally active, burrow-nesting seabird species such as storm petrels and shearwaters by digging out their burrows and feeding on all animals they find inside.[82] If a bald eagle flies close by, waterbirds will often fly away en masse, though in other cases they may seemingly ignore a perched eagle. If the said birds are on a colony, this exposed their unprotected eggs and nestlings to scavengers such as gulls.[80] Bird prey may occasionally be attacked in flight, with prey up to the size of Canada geese attacked and killed in mid-air.[74] Unprecedented photographs of a bald eagle unsuccessfully attempting to prey on a much larger adult trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) in mid-flight were taken in 2012.[83] While adults often actively prey on waterbirds, congregated wintering waterfowl are frequently exploited for carcasses to scavenge by immature eagles in harsh winter weather.[84] Bald eagles have been recorded as killing other raptors on occasion. In some cases, these may be attacks of competition or kleptoparasitism on rival species but ended with the consumption of the victim. Nine species each of other accipitrids and owls are known to have been preyed upon by bald eagles. Owl prey species have ranged in size from western screech-owls (Megascops kennicotti) to snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus).[19][56][57][85] Larger diurnal raptors known to have fallen victim to bald eagles have included red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis),[86]peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus),[87]northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis),[88]ospreys (Pandion haliaetus)[89] and black (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).[90]

Mammalian prey includes rabbits, hares, ground squirrels, raccoons (Procyon lotor), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), beavers (Castor canadensis), and deer fawns. Newborn, dead, sickly, or already injured mammals are often targeted. However, more formidable prey such as adults of raccoons, North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), and subadult beavers are sometimes attacked. In the Chesapeake Bay area, bald eagles are reportedly the main natural predators of raccoons.[91][92][93] Other relatively large mammalian prey known to be taken by bald eagles (at least rarely) as adults include Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis), American minkes (Mustela vision), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and domestic cats (Felis catus).[94][95][96][97][98][99][100] Additionally, red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) and bobcat (Lynx rufus) have been recorded amongst their prey, although it is unknown whether this was directly hunted or scavenged.[101][102] Where available, seal colonies can provide much food. On Protection Island, Washington, they commonly feed on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) afterbirths, still-borns and sickly seal pups.[103] On San Juan Island in Washington, introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), mainly those killed by auto accidents, comprise nearly 60% of the dietary intake of eagles.[104] In landlocked areas of North America, wintering bald eagles may become habitual predators of medium-sized mammals that occur in colonies or local concentrations, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) and jackrabbits (Lepus sp.). Like the golden eagle, bald eagles are capable of attacking jackrabbits and hares of nearly any size[8][105] Together with the golden eagle, bald eagles are occasionally accused of preying on livestock, especially sheep (Ovis aries). There are a handful of proven cases of lamb predation, some of specimens weighing up to 11 kg (24 lb), by bald eagles but they are much less likely to attack a healthy lamb than a golden eagle and both species prefer native, wild prey and are unlikely to cause any extensive detriment to human livelihoods.[106] There is one case of a bald eagle killing and feeding on an adult, pregnant ewe (then joined in eating the kill by at least 3 other eagles), which, weighing on average over 60 kg (130 lb), is much larger than any other known prey taken by this species.[107]

Supplemental prey are readily taken given the opportunity. In some areas reptiles may become regular prey, especially warm areas such as Florida where reptile diversity is high. Turtles are perhaps the most regularly hunted type of reptile.[8] In coastal New Jersey, 14 of 20 studied eagle nests included remains of turtles. The main species found were common musk turtles (Sternotherus odoratus), diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) and juvenile common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). In these New Jersey nests, mainly subadult and small adults were taken, ranging in carapace length from 9.2 to 17.1 cm (3.6 to 6.7 in).[108] Similarly, many turtles were recorded in the diet in the Chesapeake Bay.[109] Snakes are also taken occasionally, especially partially aquatic ones, as are amphibians and crustaceans (largely crayfish and crabs).[43][59]

To hunt fish, the eagle swoops down over the water and snatches the fish out of the water with its talons. They eat by holding the fish in one claw and tearing the flesh with the other. Eagles have structures on their toes called spicules that allow them to grasp fish. Osprey also have this adaptation.[51] Bald eagles have powerful talons and have been recorded flying with a 6.8 kg (15 lb) mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fawn.[110] This feat is the record for the heaviest load carrying ever verified for a flying bird.[111] It has been estimated that the gripping power (pounds by square inch) of the bald eagle is ten times greater than that of a human.[112] Bald eagles can fly with fish at least equal to their own weight, but if the fish is too heavy to lift, the eagle may be dragged into the water. It may swim to safety, in some cases pulling the catch along to the shore as it swims,[113] but some eagles drown or succumb to hypothermia. Many sources claim that bald eagles, like all large eagles, cannot normally take flight carrying prey more than half of their own weight unless aided by favorable wind conditions.[43][75] On numerous occasions, when large prey such as mature salmon or geese are attacked, eagles have been seen to make contact and then drag the prey in a strenuously labored, low flight over the water to a bank, where they then finish off and dismember the prey.[21] When food is abundant, an eagle can gorge itself by storing up to 1 kg (2.2 lb) of food in a pouch in the throat called a crop. Gorging allows the bird to fast for several days if food becomes unavailable.[43] Occasionally, bald eagles may hunt cooperatively when confronting prey, especially relatively large prey such as jackrabbits or herons, with one bird distracting potential prey, while the other comes behind it in order to ambush it.[5][114][115] While hunting waterfowl, bald eagles repeatedly fly at a target and cause it to dive repeatedly, hoping to exhaust the victim so it can be caught (white-tailed eagles have been recorded hunting waterfowl in the same way). When hunting concentrated prey, a successful catch often results in the hunting eagle being pursued by other eagles and needing to find an isolated perch for consumption if it is able to carry it away successfully.[21]

Unlike some other eagle species, bald eagles rarely take on evasive or dangerous prey on their own. The species mainly target prey which is much smaller than themselves, with most live fish caught weighing 1 to 3 kg (2.2 to 6.6 lb) and most waterbirds preyed weighing 0.2 to 2.7 kg (0.44 to 5.95 lb).[58][75][116] On the other hand, some salmon, carp and marine fish, mammals such as deer fawns and lambs and birds such as swans taken by bald eagles are likely to have been up to at least twice the bald eagles' own size (even if the eagle was unable to fly with it).[19][55][56] They obtain much of their food as carrion or via a practice known as kleptoparasitism, by which they steal prey away from other predators. Due to their dietary habits, bald eagles are frequently viewed in a negative light by humans.[8] Thanks to their superior foraging ability and experience, adults are generally more likely to hunt live prey than immature eagles, which often obtain their food from scavenging.[117][118] They are not very selective about the condition or origin, whether provided by humans, other animals, auto accidents or natural causes, of a carcass's presence, but will avoid eating carrion where disturbances from humans are a regular occurrence. They will scavenge carcasses up to the size of whales, though carcasses of ungulates and large fish are seemingly preferred.[21] Bald eagles also may sometimes feed on material scavenged or stolen from campsites and picnics, as well as garbage dumps (dump usage is habitual mainly in Alaska).[119]

When competing for food, eagles will usually dominate other fish-eaters and scavengers, aggressively displacing mammals such as coyotes (Canis latrans) and foxes, and birds such as corvids, gulls, vultures and other raptors.[119] Occasionally, coyotes, bobcats (Lynx rufus) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) can displace eagles from carrion, usually less confident immature birds, as has been recorded in Maine.[120] Bald eagles are less active, bold predators than golden eagles and get relatively more of their food as carrion and from kleptoparasitism (although it is now generally thought that golden eagles eat more carrion than was previously assumed).[9] However, the two species are roughly equal in size, aggressiveness and physical strength and so competitions can go either way. Neither species is known to be dominant, and the outcome depends on the size and disposition of the individual eagles involved.[21] Wintering bald and golden eagles in Utah both sometimes won conflicts, though in one recorded instance a single bald eagle successfully displaced two consecutive golden eagles from a kill.[121]

Though bald eagles face few natural threats, an unusual attacker comes in the form of the common loon (G. immer), which is also taken by eagles as prey. While common loons normally avoid conflict, they are highly territorial and will attack predators and competitors by stabbing at them with their knife-like bill; as the range of the bald eagle has increased following conservation efforts, these interactions have been observed on several occasions, including a fatality of a bald eagle in Maine that is presumed to have come about as a result of it attacking a nest, then having a fatal puncture wound inflicted by one or both loon parents.[122]

The bald eagle is thought to be much more numerous in North America than the golden eagle, with the bald species estimated to number at least 150,000 individuals, about twice as many golden eagles there are estimated to live in North America.[9][36] Due to this, bald eagles often outnumber golden eagles at attractive food sources.[9] Despite the potential for contention between these animals, in New Jersey during winter, a golden eagle and numerous bald eagles were observed to hunt snow geese alongside each other without conflict. Similarly, both eagle species have been recorded, via video-monitoring, to feed on gut piles and carcasses of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in remote forest clearings in the eastern Appalachian Mountains without apparent conflict.[9] Bald eagles as frequently mobbed by smaller raptors, due to their infrequent but unpredictable tendency to hunt other birds of prey.[121] Many bald eagles are habitual kleptoparasites, especially in winters when fish are harder to come by. They have been recorded stealing fish from other predators such as ospreys, herons and even otters.[21][123] They have also been recorded opportunistically pirating birds from peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), prairie dogs from ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) and even jackrabbits from golden eagles.[124][125] When they approach scavengers like dogs, gulls or vultures at carrion sites, they often aggressively attack them and try to force them to disgorge their food.[43] Healthy adult bald eagles are not preyed on in the wild and are thus considered apex predators.[126]

Reproduction

Bald eagles are sexually mature at four or five years of age. When they are old enough to breed, they often return to the area where they were born. It is thought that bald eagles mate for life. However, if one member of a pair dies or disappears, the survivor will choose a new mate. A pair which has repeatedly failed in breeding attempts may split and look for new mates.[127] Bald eagle courtship involves elaborate, spectacular calls and flight displays by the males. The flight includes swoops, chases, and cartwheels, in which they fly high, lock talons, and free-fall, separating just before hitting the ground.[55][128][129] Usually, a territory defended by a mature pair will be 1 to 2 km (0.62 to 1.24 mi) of waterside habitat.[8]

Compared to most other raptors which mostly nest in April or May, bald eagles are early breeders: nest building or reinforcing is often by mid-February, egg laying is often late February (sometimes during deep snow in the North), and incubation is usually mid-March and early May. Eggs hatch from mid April to early May, and the young fledge late June to early July.[8] The nest is the largest of any bird in North America; it is used repeatedly over many years and with new material added each year may eventually be as large as 4 m (13 ft) deep, 2.5 m (8.2 ft) across and weigh 1 metric ton (1.1 short tons);[3] one nest in Florida was found to be 6.1 m (20 ft) deep, 2.9 meters (9.5 ft) across, and to weigh 3 short tons (2.7 metric tons).[130] This nest is on record as the largest tree nest ever recorded for any animal.[131] Usually nests are used for under five years or so, as they either collapse in storms or break the branches supporting them by their sheer weight. However, one nest in the Midwest was occupied continuously for at least 34 years.[43] The nest is built out of branches, usually in large trees found near water. When breeding where there are no trees, the bald eagle will nest on the ground, as has been recorded largely in areas largely isolated from terrestrial predators, such as Amchitka Island in Alaska.[119]

In Sonora, Mexico, eagles have been observed nesting on top of Hecho catcuses (Pachycereus pectinaboriginum).[132] Nests located on cliffs and rock pinnacles have been reported historically in California, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah, but currently are only verified to occur only in Alaska and Arizona.[8] The eggs average about 73 mm (2.9 in) long, ranging from 58 to 85 mm (2.3 to 3.3 in), and have a breadth of 54 mm (2.1 in), ranging from 47 to 63 mm (1.9 to 2.5 in).[51][55] Eggs in Alaska averaged 130 g (4.6 oz) in mass, while in Saskatchewan they averaged 114.4 g (4.04 oz).[133][134] As with their ultimate body size, egg size tends to increase further away from the Equator.[55] Eagles produce between one and three eggs per year, two being typical. Rarely, four eggs have been found in nests but these may be exceptional cases of polygyny.[135] Eagles in captivity have been capable of producing up to seven eggs.[136] It is rare for all three chicks to successfully reach the fledgling stage. The oldest chick often bears the advantage of larger size and louder voice, which tends to draw the parents' attention towards it.[8] Occasionally, as is recorded in many large raptorial birds, the oldest sibling sometimes attacks and kills its younger sibling(s), especially early in the nesting period when their sizes are most different.[8] However, nearly half of known bald eagles produce two fledglings (more rarely three), unlike in some other "eagle" species such as some in the genus Aquila, in which a second fledgling is typically observed in less than 20% of nests, despite two eggs typically being laid.[18] Both the male and female take turns incubating the eggs, but the female does most of the sitting. The parent not incubating will hunt for food or look for nesting material during this stage. For the first two to three weeks of the nestling period, at least one adult is at the nest almost 100% of the time. After five to six weeks, the attendance of parents usually drops off considerably (with the parents often perching in trees nearby).[8]

A young eaglet can gain up to 170 g (6.0 oz) a day, the fastest growth rate of any North American bird.[43] The young eaglets pick up and manipulate sticks, play tug of war with each other, practice holding things in their talons, and stretch and flap their wings. By eight weeks, the eaglets are strong enough to flap their wings, lift their feet off the nest platform, and rise up in the air.[43] The young fledge at anywhere from 8 to 14 weeks of age, though will remain close to the nest and attended to by their parents for a further 6 weeks. Juvenile eagles first start dispersing away from their parents about 8 weeks after they fledge. Variability in departure date related to effects of sex and hatching order on growth and development.[134] For the next four years, immature eagles wander widely in search of food until they attain adult plumage and are eligible to reproduce.[137] Additionally, as shown by a pair of eagles in Shoal Harbor Migratory Bird Sanctuary located near Sidney, British Columbia on June 9, 2017, bald eagles have been recorded to occasionally adopt other raptor fledglings into their nests. The pair of eagles in question were recorded carrying a juvenile red-tailed hawk back to their nest, whereupon the chick was accepted into the family by both the parents and the eagles' three fledgelings. Whether or not the chick survived remained to be seen at the time, as young bald eagles are known for killing their siblings. However, the aggression of the red-tailed hawk may ensure its survival, as the hawks are well known for their ability to successfully defend against an eagle attack.[138] Six weeks after, however, it was discovered that the hawk, nicknamed "Spunky" by biologists monitoring the nest, had grown to fledgeling size and was learning how to hunt, indicating that it successfully survived.[139]

Longevity and mortality

The average lifespan of bald eagles in the wild is around 20 years, with the oldest confirmed one having been 38 years of age.[140] In captivity, they often live somewhat longer. In one instance, a captive individual in New York lived for nearly 50 years. As with size, the average lifespan of an eagle population appears to be influenced by its location and access to prey.[141] As they are no longer heavily persecuted, adult mortality is quite low. In one study of Florida eagles, adult bald eagles reportedly had 100% annual survival rate.[9] In Prince William Sound in Alaska, adults had an annual survival rate of 88% even after the Exxon Valdez oil spill adversely affected eagles in the area.[142] Of 1,428 individuals from across the range necropsied by National Wildlife Health Center from 1963 to 1984, 329 (23%) eagles died from trauma, primarily impact with wires and vehicles; 309 (22%) died from gunshot; 158 (11%) died from poisoning; 130 (9%) died from electrocution; 68 (5%) died from trapping; 110 (8%) from emaciation; and 31 (2%) from disease; cause of death was undetermined in 293 (20%) of cases.[143] In this study, 68% of mortality was human-caused.[143] Today, eagle-shooting is believed to be considerably reduced due to the species' protected status.[144] In one case, an adult eagle investigating a peregrine falcon nest for prey items sustained a concussion from a swooping parent peregrine, and ultimately died days later from it.[145] An early natural history video depicting a cougar (Puma concolor) ambushing and killing an immature bald eagle feeding at a rabbit carcass is viewable online, although this film may have been staged.[146]

Most non-human-related mortality involves nestlings or eggs. Around 50% of eagles survive their first year.[137] However, in the Chesapeake Bay area, 100% of 39 radio-tagged nestlings survived to their first year.[147] Occasionally, nestling or egg fatalities are due to nest collapses, starvation, sibling aggression or inclement weather. Another significant cause of egg and nestling mortality is predation. These have been verified to be preyed by large gulls, corvids (including ravens, crows and magpies), wolverines (Gulo gulo), fishers (Pekania pennanti), red-tailed hawks, owls, other eagles, bobcats, American black bears (Ursus americanus) and raccoons.[133][148][149][150][151][152][153][154] If food access is low, parental attendance at the nest may be lower because both parents may have to forage, thus resulting in less protection.[18] Nestlings are usually exempt from predation by terrestrial carnivores that are poor tree-climbers, but Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) occasionally snatched nestlings from ground nests on Amchitka Island in Alaska before they were extirpated from the island.[119] The bald eagle will defend its nest fiercely from all comers and has even repelled attacks from bears, having been recorded knocking a black bear out of a tree when the latter tried to climb a tree holding nestlings.[155]

Relationship with humans

Population decline and recovery

Inside a waste collection and transfer facility, in Homer, Alaska, United States

Once a common sight in much of the continent, the bald eagle was severely affected in the mid-20th century by a variety of factors, among them the thinning of egg shells attributed to use of the pesticide DDT.[156] Bald eagles, like many birds of prey, were especially affected by DDT due to biomagnification. DDT itself was not lethal to the adult bird, but it interfered with their calcium metabolism, making them either sterile or unable to lay healthy eggs; many of their eggs were too brittle to withstand the weight of a brooding adult, making it nearly impossible for them to hatch.[34] It is estimated that the early 18th century the bald eagle population was 300,000–500,000,[157] but by the 1950s there were only 412 nesting pairs in the 48 contiguous states of the US.[158][159] Other factors in bald eagle population reductions were a widespread loss of suitable habitat, as well as both legal and illegal shooting. In 1930 a New York City ornithologist wrote that in the state of Alaska in the previous 12 years approximately 70,000 bald eagles had been shot. Many of the hunters killed the bald eagles under the long-held beliefs that bald eagles grabbed young lambs and even children with their talons, yet the birds were innocent of most of these alleged acts of predation (lamb predation is rare, human predation is thought to be non-existent).[160] Later illegal shooting was described as "the leading cause of direct mortality in both adult and immature bald eagles," according to a 1978 report in the Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. In 1984, the National Wildlife Federation listed hunting, power-line electrocution, and collisions in flight as the leading causes of eagle deaths. Bald eagles have also been killed by oil, lead, and mercury pollution, and by human and predator intrusion at nests.[161]

The species was first protected in the U.S. and Canada by the 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty, later extended to all of North America. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, approved by the U.S. Congress in 1940, protected the bald eagle and the golden eagle, prohibiting commercial trapping and killing of the birds. The bald eagle was declared an endangered species in the U.S. in 1967, and amendments to the 1940 act between 1962 and 1972 further restricted commercial uses and increased penalties for violators.[162][163] Perhaps most significant in the species' recovery, in 1972, DDT was banned from usage in the United States due to the fact that it inhibited the reproduction of many birds.[164] DDT was completely banned in Canada in 1989, though its use had been highly restricted since the late 1970s.[165]

First-year juvenile bald eagle at Anacortes, Washington United States

With regulations in place and DDT banned, the eagle population rebounded. The bald eagle can be found in growing concentrations throughout the United States and Canada, particularly near large bodies of water. In the early 1980s, the estimated total population was 100,000 individuals, with 110,000–115,000 by 1992;[3] the U.S. state with the largest resident population is Alaska, with about 40,000–50,000, with the next highest population the Canadian province of British Columbia with 20,000–30,000 in 1992.[3] Obtaining a precise count of the bald eagle population is extremely difficult. The most recent data submitted by individual states was in 2006, when 9789 breeding pairs were reported.[166] For some time, the stronghold breeding population of bald eagles in the lower 48 states was in Florida, where over a thousand pairs have held on while populations in other states were significantly reduced by DDT use. Today, the contiguous state with the largest number of breeding pairs of eagles is Minnesota with an estimated 1,312 pairs, surpassing Florida's most recent count of 1,166 pairs. 23, or nearly half, of the 48 contiguous states now have at least 100 breeding pairs of bald eagles.[36] In Washington State, there were only 105 occupied nests in 1980. That number increased by about 30 per year, so that by 2005 there were 840 occupied nests. 2005 was the last year that the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife counted occupied nests. Further population increases in Washington may be limited by the availability of late winter food, particularly salmon.[167]

The bald eagle was officially removed from the U.S. federal government's list of endangered species on July 12, 1995, by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, when it was reclassified from "endangered" to "threatened." On July 6, 1999, a proposal was initiated "To Remove the Bald Eagle in the Lower 48 States From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife." It was de-listed on June 28, 2007.[168] It has also been assigned a risk level of least concern category on the IUCN Red List.[2] In the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 an estimated 247 were killed in Prince William Sound, though the local population returned to its pre-spill level by 1995.[5] In some areas, the increase in eagles has led to decreases in other bird populations[169] and the eagles may be considered a pest.[170]

Killing permits

In December 2016, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed quadrupling the amount of bald eagles that can be killed by the wind electric generation industry without paying a penalty to 4,200 per year. If issued, the permits would last 30 years, six times the current 5-year permits.[171][172]

In captivity

Permits are required to keep bald eagles in captivity in the United States. Permits are primarily issued to public educational institutions, and the eagles which they show are permanently injured individuals which cannot be released to the wild. The facilities where eagles are kept must be equipped with adequate caging and facilities, as well as workers experienced in the handling and care of eagles.[173] The bald eagle can be long-lived in captivity if well cared for, but does not breed well even under the best conditions.[174]

In Canada[175] and in England[176] a license is required to keep bald eagles for falconry.[177] Bald eagles cannot legally be kept for falconry in the United States, but a license may be issued in some jurisdictions to allow for using such eagles to perform in birds of prey flight shows.[178][179]

Cultural significance

The bald eagle is important in various Native American cultures and, as the national bird of the United States, is prominent in seals and logos, coinage, postage stamps, and other items relating to the U.S. federal government.

Role in Native American culture

The bald eagle is a sacred bird in some North American cultures, and its feathers, like those of the golden eagle, are central to many religious and spiritual customs among Native Americans. Eagles are considered spiritual messengers between gods and humans by some cultures.[180] Many pow wow dancers use the eagle claw as part of their regalia as well. Eagle feathers are often used in traditional ceremonies, particularly in the construction of regalia worn and as a part of fans, bustles and head dresses. In the Navajo tradition an eagle feather is represented to be a protector, along with the feather Navajo medicine men use the leg and wing bones for ceremonial whistles.[181] The Lakota, for instance, give an eagle feather as a symbol of honor to person who achieves a task. In modern times, it may be given on an event such as a graduation from college.[182] The Pawnee considered eagles as symbols of fertility because their nests are built high off the ground and because they fiercely protect their young.[183] The Choctaw considered the bald eagle, who has direct contact with the upper world of the sun, as a symbol of peace.[184]

During the Sun Dance, which is practiced by many Plains Indian tribes, the eagle is represented in several ways. The eagle nest is represented by the fork of the lodge where the dance is held. A whistle made from the wing bone of an eagle is used during the course of the dance. Also during the dance, a medicine man may direct his fan, which is made of eagle feathers, to people who seek to be healed. The medicine man touches the fan to the center pole and then to the patient, in order to transmit power from the pole to the patient. The fan is then held up toward the sky, so that the eagle may carry the prayers for the sick to the Creator.[185]

Current eagle feather law stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain or possess bald or golden eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. The constitutionality of these laws has been questioned by Native American groups on the basis that it violates the First Amendment by affecting ability to practice their religion freely.[186][187]

The National Eagle Repository, a division of the FWS, exists as a means to receive, process, and store bald and golden eagles which are found dead, and to distribute the eagles, their parts and feathers, to federally recognized Native American tribes for use in religious ceremonies.[188]

National bird of the United States

Further information: Great Seal of the United States § Obverse

The bald eagle is the national bird of the United States of America.[189] The founders of the United States were fond of comparing their new republic with the Roman Republic, in which eagle imagery (usually involving the golden eagle) was prominent. On June 20, 1782, the Continental Congress adopted the design for the Great Seal of the United States, depicting a bald eagle grasping 13 arrows and an olive branch with thirteen leaves with its talons.[190][191][192] As with the rattlesnake used during the Revolutionary War, part of the significance of the bald eagle (as opposed to the golden eagle) was its being native to the Americas, showing a separate identity from the Old World.

The bald eagle appears on most official seals of the U.S. government, including the presidential seal, the presidential flag, and in the logos of many U.S. federal agencies. Between 1916 and 1945, the presidential flag (but not the seal) showed an eagle facing to its left (the viewer's right), which gave rise to the urban legend that the flag is changed to have the eagle face towards the olive branch in peace, and towards the arrows in wartime.[193]

Contrary to popular legend, there is no evidence that Benjamin Franklin ever publicly supported the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), rather than the bald eagle, as a symbol of the United States. However, in a letter written to his daughter in 1784 from Paris, criticizing the Society of the Cincinnati, he stated his personal distaste for the bald eagle's behavior. In the letter Franklin states:[194]

For my own part. I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen the representative of our country. He is a bird of bad moral character. He does not get his living honestly ... besides he is a rank coward: The little king bird not bigger than a sparrow attacks him boldly and drives him out of the district.

Franklin opposed the creation of the Society because he viewed it, with its hereditary membership, as a noble order unwelcome in the newly independent Republic, contrary to the ideals of Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, for whom the Society was named. His reference to the two kinds of birds is interpreted as a satirical comparison between the Society of the Cincinnati and Cincinnatus.[195]

Popular culture

Largely because of its role as a symbol of the United States, but also because of its being a large predator, the bald eagle has many representations in popular culture. Not all of these representations are accurate. In particular, the movie or television bald eagle typically has a bold, powerful cry. Actual bald eagle vocalizations are much softer and more chirpy than popular depictions; in movies and television, the call of the red-tailed hawk is often substituted for bald eagles.[196]

See also

References

  1. ^"Haliaeetus leucocephalus Linnaeus 1766 (bald eagle)". PBDB.
  2. ^ abBirdLife International (2016). "Haliaeetus leucocephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22695144A93492523. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22695144A93492523.en. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  3. ^ abcdefghdel Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J., eds. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol. 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona ISBN 84-87334-15-6
  4. ^ abcHarris. "Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus". University of Michigan Museum of Geology. Archived from the original on June 4, 2007. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  5. ^ abcd"Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Archived from the original on June 2, 2007. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  6. ^ abcdefFerguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. (2001). Raptors of the World. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 717–19. ISBN .
  7. ^ abSibley, D. (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. National Audubon SocietyISBN 0-679-45122-6 p. 127
  8. ^ abcdefghijklmnoTravsky, A. & Beauvais, G. "Species Assessment for Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in Wyoming"(PDF). United States Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management. Archived from the original(PDF) on June 2, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  9. ^ abcdefJeff Watson (2010). The Golden Eagle. A&C Black. ISBN . Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  10. ^Bird, D.M. (2004). The Bird Almanac: A Guide to Essential Facts and Figures of the World's Birds. Ontario: Firefly Books. ISBN .
  11. ^"Bald Eagle Facts and Information". Eagles.org. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
  12. ^Dunning, Jr., J.B., ed. (1993). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press, Ann Arbor.
  13. ^Murphy, T. & Hope, C. "Bald Eagles in South Carolina"(PDF). Department of Natural Resources of South Carolina. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  14. ^Maehr, D. S., & Kale, H. W. (2005). Florida's Birds: A Field Guide and Reference. Pineapple Press Inc.
  15. ^Patterson, D.A., McClelland, B.R., Shea, D.S. & McClelland, P.T. (1998). "Size Variation of Migrant Bald Eagles at Glacier National Park, Montana". J. Raptor Res. 32(2):120–25.
  16. ^Zylo, M. T. (2012). "Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering in northern Arizona select perches based on food availability, visibility and cover" (Doctoral dissertation, Northern Arizona University).
  17. ^"ARKive- Bald Eagle video, photos and facts". ARKive.org- Images of Life on Earth. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  18. ^ abcEagles, Hawks and Falcons of the World by Leslie Brown & Dean Amadon. The Wellfleet Press (1986), ISBN 978-1-55521-472-2.
  19. ^ abcdefgPalmer, R. S. (Ed.). (1988). Handbook of North American Birds Volume VI: Diurnal Raptors (Part 1). Yale University Press.
  20. ^Gende, S. M. (2008).

    First National Bank Alaska, Palmer Branch


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    Источник: http://palmeralaska.net/2009/07/17/banks-in-palmer-alaska/

    First National Bank Alaska is an FDIC insured bank located in Anchorage and has 4927784 in assets. First National Bank Alaska has 28 banking locations. If you have any problems accessing the First National Bank Alaska E-Customer Service, please call the customer service number located on the back of your card. 05/05. FITKUS78 XXX - SWIFT Code (BIC) - FIRST NATIONAL BANK ALASKA in ANCHORAGE,AK - UNITED STATES. Updated. Mile 187 Glenn Highway, Suite C. Glennallen, AK 99588. ×. Back to Home Loan Center. The average salary for First National Bank of Alaska employees is $72,635 per year. First National Bank Alaska. 0% intro APR* on purchases and balance transfers for 20 billing cycles. Promotes and cross-sells all products and services of the bank determining which best suits customers' needs. Member FDIC . FIRST NATIONAL BANK ALASKA ANCHORAGE - 125200060, Bank Routing Number Address Domestic and International wire transfer Instructions Alaska School Activities Association. 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Chartered in 1863, it was the first national bank created under the Civil War banking reforms that began to define the modern U.S. banking system, and the first commercial bank to issue a federal banknote. First National Bank Alaska Palmer branch is one of the 28 offices of the bank and has been serving the financial needs of their customers in Palmer, Matanuska Susitna county, Alaska since 1976. Yelp is a fun and easy way to find, recommend and talk about what’s great and not so great in Haines and beyond. First National Bank Alaska ( OTCQB : FBAK) is an American bank founded in 1922 by Winfield Ervin Sr., as The First National Bank of Anchorage. Bank deposit products and services provided by First National Bank of Pennsylvania. First National Bank Alaska Home Loan Interest Rates. Actual or attempted unauthorized use of this computer system will result in criminal and/or civil prosecution. Report Job. First National Bank Alaska in Haines, reviews by real people. 1100 Muldoon Rd. 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We reserve the right to view, monitor and record activity on the system without notice or permission. 101 W 36th Ave. Anchorage, AK. Bank deposit products and services provided by First National Bank of Pennsylvania. Contact our business banking experts to get started. Their corporate headquarters is listed as: 101 W. 36th Avenue in Anchorage Alaska. (907) 834-4800 You need to enable JavaScript to run this app. First National Bank Alaska - Dimond Branch. We also have hundreds of designs and motifs to choose from. First National Bank Alaska, Glennallen Branch. The first branch stood on the corner of 4th and G Streets in Anchorage, Alaska. Established in 2015, First National Bank Alaska - Main Branch- Branches is located at 646 W 4th Ave in Downtown - Anchorage, AK - Anchorage County and is a business listed in the categories Banks, Credit Card Plan Services, Loans Personal, Mortgage Bankers & Correspondents, Commercial Banks, Consumer … Sign-On to your First Bank Online Banking. First National Bank Alaska Announced Unaudited Results for Second Quarter 2020 Business Wire 08/14 14:33 ET. ANCHORAGE, Alaska--(BUSINESS WIRE)--First National Bank Alaska’s (OTCQX:FBAK) unaudited net income for first quarter 2021 was $14.0 million, … COACHES INFORMATION. 8 First National Bank Alaska Branch locations in Anchorage, AK. Industry: Other Commercial Printing. First National Bank Alaska, a commercial bank, provides various banking products and services for business, industry, and individual customers primarily in Alaska. This compares to … That is a pretty typical sheet output for a national bank during the small size era. First National Bank Alaska ( OTCQB : FBAK) is an American bank founded in 1922 by Winfield Ervin Sr., as The First National Bank of Anchorage. First National Bank Alaska Branch Location at 5850 Westover Avenue, Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, AK 99506 - Hours of Operation, Phone Number, Routing Numbers, Address, Directions and Reviews. (907) 777-4362. 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First National Bank Alaska 3 Month CD Rates. You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 907-746-8900. First Bank offers a host of consumer and commercial banking products and services to meet our customers’ needs. PPP Application Hub. First National Bank Alaska - Bethel Kuskokwim Branch, Finance - Financial Institutions. OCTOBER 9, 2021 AT BARTLETT HIGH SCHOOL TRAILS. First National Bank Alaska. Enjoy intuitive navigation and efficient access to a wealth of account information with our enhanced secure online business banking tool. Account Login. Business. The community bank maintains more than 30 branches in over 15 communities in Alaska. First National Bank Alaska has a beta of 0.35, indicating that its share price is 65% less volatile than the S&P 500. Toggle navigation. Palmer office is located at 303 West Evergreen Avenue, Palmer. Approves and transmits wires using the branch wire…. First National Bank Alaska. Prequalify & Apply (907) 777-5600 First National Bank Alaska (OTCQB: FBAK) is an American bank founded in 1922 by Winfield Ervin, Sr., as The First National Bank of Anchorage. First National Bank Alaska is a great place to work they treat everyone as a family member. Thank you for choosing First National Bank Alaska. sample person address city, state zip phone first national bank alaska 1753 gambell st suite 316 anchorage, ak 99501 89-6/1252 0000 07/06/2021 c0000c a125200060a 0000000000c At First Bank, we are committed to our customers. First National Bank Alaska - Valdez Branch, Finance - Financial Institutions. First National Bank Alaska is proud to deliver the highest level of security for our Business Online Banking customers. I do not even have a bank account with these people. 1.10%. OFFICIALS INFORMATION. First National Bank Alaska Employee Directory. 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Proudly serving Ketchikan, Sitka, Juneau, and surrounding areas of Alaska … For a directory of departments call: 1-833-BANK-FNB (1-833-226-5362) For assistance with bank accounts, online access, or debit cards call: 1-800-555-5455 1 review of First National Bank Alaska "Just woke up today to find that First National had debited my account for an Escrow Payment that was to be deposited into my account, not debited from my account. First National Bank Alaska Customer Reviews, Frequently Asked Questions, Rates, Branches, Related Articles, and Financial Summary - 2021 The main phone number for First National Bank is 423-663-4044. The assigned Federal Reserve Office for First National Bank is Fed 061000146. If you have any problems accessing the First National Bank Alaska E-Customer Service, please call the customer service number located on the back of your card. First National Bank Alaska 6 Month CD Rates. Founded in 1922, First National Bank Alaska is a financial institution that provides a range of lending and depository products. I sure hope they do not think I am going to pay any associated overdraft fees with this transaction. First National Bank Alaska in Haines, reviews by real people. CROSS COUNTRY RUNNING STATE CHAMPIONSHIPS. You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 907-260-6000. Alaska School Activities Association. 6 days ago. View all jobs at First National Bank Alaska Report Job. Check the FITKUS78XXX SWIFT / BIC code … First National Bank Texas/First Convenience Bank wants to help you get the car that fits your budget. Industry. Order First National Bank Alaska Checks here at Bankchecks.org. Get hours, reviews, customer service phone number and driving directions. Customers can open an account at one of its 31 Branches. 04/30. Contact our business banking experts to get started.

    Источник: https://passaiclimousines.com/8y8n5f/first-national-bank-alaska

    First National Bank Alaska - Palmer Branch

    The following are this First National Bank Alaska branch's opening and closing hours:

    Monday
    10:00 AM - 6:00 PM

    Tuesday
    10:00 AM - 6:00 PM

    Wednesday
    10:00 AM - 6:00 PM

    Thursday
    10:00 AM - 6:00 PM


    Friday
    10:00 AM - 6:00 PM

    Saturday
    10:00 AM - 3:00 PM

    Sunday
    Closed



    The Palmer Branch location of First National Bank Alaska was established Mar 24, 1976 (45 years and 8 months ago). They are one of 28 branch locations operated by First National Bank Alaska. For ATM locations, drive-thru hours, deposit info, and more information consider visiting their online banking site at: www.fnbalaska.com
    Bank's Headquarters:

    101 W. 36th Avenue
    Anchorage, Alaska 99510

    Became FDIC Insured:

    Apr 4, 1944

    Источник: https://www.wheresmybank.com/branch-237370-first-national-bank-alaska-palmer-branch

    First National Bank Alaska Palmer Branch

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    Источник: https://cumaps.net/en/US/first-national-bank-alaska-palmer-branch-p4934341
    Perspectives on the Breeding Biology of Bald Eagles in Southeast Alaska". Bald Eagles in Alaska, Bruce A. Wright and Phil Schempf, eds. University of Alaska Southeast.
  21. ^ abcdefghBald Eagle. Birds of North America Online. Bna.birds.cornell.edu. Retrieved on December 24, 2012.
  22. ^Schempf, P. R (1997). "Bald eagle longevity record from Southeastern Alaska". Journal of Field Ornithology. 68 (1): 150–51.
  23. ^Imler, R. H., & Kalmbach, E. R. (1955). The Bald Eagle and its economic status (Vol. 30). US Government Printing Office.
  24. ^Friedman, H., & Ridgway, R. (1950). The birds of north and middle America. Part XI. Cathartidae to Falconidae. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. no. 50.
  25. ^Dudley, Karen (1998). Bald Eagles. Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers. p. 7. ISBN .
  26. ^ἁλιάετος in Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Jones, Sir Henry Stuart, with the assistance of McKenzie, Roderick. Oxford: Clarendon Press. In the Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.
  27. ^λευκός in Liddell and Scott
  28. ^κεφαλή in Liddell and Scott
  29. ^Joshua Dietz. "What's in a Name". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on August 5, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
  30. ^Linnaeus, Carolus (1766). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata (in Latin). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).
  31. ^"Haliaeetus leucocephalus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  32. ^ abBrown, N. L. "Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus". Endangered Species Recovery Program. Archived from the original on September 12, 2006. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  33. ^Wink, M (1996). "A mtDNA phylogeny of sea eagles (genus Haliaeetus) based on nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene"(PDF). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 24 (7–8): 783–91. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(97)81217-3. Archived(PDF) from the original on October 29, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
  34. ^ abBull J; Farrand, J Jr (1987). Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds: Eastern Region. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 468–69. ISBN .
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  36. ^ abcPopulation report. Biologicaldiversity.org. Retrieved on December 24, 2012.
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  39. ^"Making their comeback". oswegocountynewsnow.com. January 22, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  40. ^"Bald Eagle Lands Exhausted in Ireland", Associated Press, December 15, 1987.
  41. ^ abc"Wildlife Species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  42. ^ abcSuring, L. "Habitat Relationships of Bald Eagles in Alaska"(PDF). U.S. Forest Service. Archived from the original(PDF) on June 5, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  43. ^ abcdefghijkl"The Bald Eagle in Florida"(PDF). Florida Power & Light Company. Archived from the original(PDF) on October 6, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  44. ^Andrew, J. M.; Mosher, J. A. (1982). "Bald Eagle nest site selection and nesting habitat in Maryland". Journal of Wildlife Management. 46 (2): 382–90. doi:10.2307/3808650. JSTOR 3808650.
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Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bald_eagle

First National Bank Alaska is an FDIC insured bank located in Anchorage and has 4927784 in assets. First National Bank Alaska has 28 banking locations. If you have any problems accessing the First National Bank Alaska E-Customer Service, please call the customer service number located on the back of your card. 05/05. FITKUS78 XXX - SWIFT Code (BIC) - FIRST NATIONAL BANK ALASKA in ANCHORAGE,AK - UNITED STATES. Updated. Mile 187 Glenn Highway, Suite C. Glennallen, AK 99588. ×. Back to Home Loan Center. The average salary for First National Bank of Alaska employees is $72,635 per year. First National Bank Alaska. 0% intro APR* on purchases and balance transfers for 20 billing cycles. Promotes and cross-sells all products and services of the bank determining which best suits customers' needs. Member FDIC. FIRST NATIONAL BANK ALASKA ANCHORAGE - 125200060, Bank Routing Number Address Domestic and International wire transfer Instructions Alaska School Activities Association. First National Bank has been serving the personal, business, and agricultural, banking needs of communities located throughout Southwest Kansas for over 100 years. First National Bank Alaska Declares Dividend For Second Quarter 2021. You are not just able to print checks for your banks. Transfer money, make payments, set up bill pay, monitor your transactions, and more, all through our online banking portal. 1 review of First National Bank Alaska "Just woke up today to find that First National had debited my account for an Escrow Payment that was to be deposited into my account, not debited from my account. First National Bank Online Online Banking. Toggle navigation. Please make sure this is the correct routing number for your branch! First National Bank (Philadelphia) First National Bank was a bank in Philadelphia. Chartered in 1863, it was the first national bank created under the Civil War banking reforms that began to define the modern U.S. banking system, and the first commercial bank to issue a federal banknote. First National Bank Alaska Palmer branch is one of the 28 offices of the bank and has been serving the financial needs of their customers in Palmer, Matanuska Susitna county, Alaska since 1976. Yelp is a fun and easy way to find, recommend and talk about what’s great and not so great in Haines and beyond. First National Bank Alaska ( OTCQB : FBAK) is an American bank founded in 1922 by Winfield Ervin Sr., as The First National Bank of Anchorage. Bank deposit products and services provided by First National Bank of Pennsylvania. First National Bank Alaska Home Loan Interest Rates. Actual or attempted unauthorized use of this computer system will result in criminal and/or civil prosecution. Report Job. First National Bank Alaska in Haines, reviews by real people. 1100 Muldoon Rd. It is also the 263 rd largest bank in the nation. Anchorage, AK 99504. First National Bank Alaska is one of the largest, full-service, locally owned financial institutions that serves the needs of individuals and businesses in Alaska. First National Bank Alaska has 28 banking locations. It offers checking, money market, individual retirement and savings accounts, as well as certificates of deposit. First National Bank Alaska was established on Jan. 30, 1922. The first branch stood on the corner of 4th and G Streets in Anchorage, Alaska. Operations Assistant - Muldoon Branch new. The Class B Office building was completed in 1974 and features a total of 58,024 Sqft. First National Bank Alaska Announces Unaudited Results for First Quarter 2021 Morningstar%2c Inc. 5/6/2021 Woodworth has lived in Alaska since 1985 and has over 30 years of banking experience, working for the National Bank of Alaska (subsequently Wells Fargo) and First National Bank of Alaska. Manage your finances any time, anywhere with online and mobile tools from First National Bank Alaska. Phone: (907) 276-6300, (800) 856-4362, (907) 777-4362. First National Bank of Omaha offers personal, business, commercial, and wealth solutions with branch, mobile and online banking for checking, loans, mortgages, and more. BU. Claim this business. Comparatively, First BanCorp. Every 1929 $5 bill has a portrait of Abraham Lincoln on it. 4.2 miles. to the correct bank branch. ×. First National Bank Alaska is an FDIC insured bank located in Anchorage and has 4927784 in assets. 6 days ago. First national bank palmer alaska you will find ratings, reviews, corporate information, directions, office hours, their phone number, online banking website, and branch locations. First National Bank of Omaha offers personal, business, commercial, and wealth solutions with branch, mobile and online banking for checking, loans, mortgages, and more. It's simple, secure, and reliable. We reserve the right to view, monitor and record activity on the system without notice or permission. 101 W 36th Ave. Anchorage, AK. Bank deposit products and services provided by First National Bank of Pennsylvania. Contact our business banking experts to get started. Their corporate headquarters is listed as: 101 W. 36th Avenue in Anchorage Alaska. (907) 834-4800 You need to enable JavaScript to run this app. First National Bank Alaska - Dimond Branch. We also have hundreds of designs and motifs to choose from. First National Bank Alaska, Glennallen Branch. The first branch stood on the corner of 4th and G Streets in Anchorage, Alaska. Established in 2015, First National Bank Alaska - Main Branch- Branches is located at 646 W 4th Ave in Downtown - Anchorage, AK - Anchorage County and is a business listed in the categories Banks, Credit Card Plan Services, Loans Personal, Mortgage Bankers & Correspondents, Commercial Banks, Consumer … Sign-On to your First Bank Online Banking. First National Bank Alaska Announced Unaudited Results for Second Quarter 2020 Business Wire 08/14 14:33 ET. ANCHORAGE, Alaska--(BUSINESS WIRE)--First National Bank Alaska’s (OTCQX:FBAK) unaudited net income for first quarter 2021 was $14.0 million, … COACHES INFORMATION. 8 First National Bank Alaska Branch locations in Anchorage, AK. Industry: Other Commercial Printing. First National Bank Alaska, a commercial bank, provides various banking products and services for business, industry, and individual customers primarily in Alaska. This compares to … That is a pretty typical sheet output for a national bank during the small size era. First National Bank Alaska ( OTCQB : FBAK) is an American bank founded in 1922 by Winfield Ervin Sr., as The First National Bank of Anchorage. First National Bank Alaska Branch Location at 5850 Westover Avenue, Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, AK 99506 - Hours of Operation, Phone Number, Routing Numbers, Address, Directions and Reviews. (907) 777-4362. Deposits in First National Bank Alaska are insured by FDIC. Learn how First National Bank Lean leg workout at home is rated and compare its account fees, customer reviews, and latest bank accounts interest rates. Proudly serving Ketchikan, Sitka, Juneau, and surrounding areas of Alaska … Summary. 99503 USA. In some cases, the order of the checking account number and check serial number is reversed. First National Bank Alaska corporate office is located in 101 W 36th Ave, Anchorage, Alaska, United States and has 340 employees. For your security, the system will log you off if … Aug, 2019. Get First National Bank Alaska reviews, ratings, business hours, phone numbers, and directions. Serving You First. About First National Bank Alaska: Personal Banking, Mortgages, Banks, Loans Personal. First National Bank Alaska 20 … It provides personal and … You need to enable JavaScript to run this app. First National Bank Alaska, with its head office in Anchorage, Alaska, is one of the largest locally owned and operated banks in Alaska. OFFICIALS INFORMATION. Soldotna office is located at 44501 Sterling Highway, Soldotna. 2021 ASAA/FIRST NATIONAL BANK ALASKA. Anchorage, AK. 360 K St. Anchorage, AK 99501. ANCHORAGE, Alaska--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- First National Bank Alaska’s (OTCQX: FBAK) unaudited net income for first quarter 2021 was $14.0 million, … Routing numbers are also known as bank routing numbers, routing transit numbers (RTNs), ABA numbers, ACH routing numbers. Routing number for First National Bank Alaska is a 9 digit bank code used for various bank transactions such as direct deposits, electronic payments, wire transfers, check ordering and many more. I do not even have a bank account with these people. Account Details. first national bank alaska. 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Founded in 1922, First National Bank Alaska is a financial institution that provides a range of lending and depository products. I sure hope they do not think I am going to pay any associated overdraft fees with this transaction. First National Bank Alaska in Haines, reviews by real people. CROSS COUNTRY RUNNING STATE CHAMPIONSHIPS. You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 907-260-6000. Alaska School Activities Association. 6 days ago. View all jobs at First National Bank Alaska Report Job. Check the FITKUS78XXX SWIFT / BIC code … First National Bank Texas/First Convenience Bank wants to help you get the car that fits your budget. Industry. Order First National Bank Alaska Checks here at Bankchecks.org. Get hours, reviews, customer service phone number and driving directions. Customers can open an account at one of its 31 Branches. 04/30. Contact our business banking experts to get started.

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Banks in Palmer AlaskaJuly 17th, 2009

Categories: Businesses

No need to drive all the way to Wasilla for your personal banking, Palmer has 5 different banks of its own, right here in downtown!

A Wells Fargo Branch, on S Bailey St

First National Bank, on Evergreen Ave

Matanuska Valley Federal Credit Union, on S Bailey St

Key Bank in Key Bank Plaza

Alaska USA Federal Credit Union on the Palmer-Wasilla Hwy

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Источник: http://palmeralaska.net/2009/07/17/banks-in-palmer-alaska/

First National Bank Alaska Palmer Branch

Other Places:

Lifesafer Ignition Interlock (Cng)
10 N 2nd St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8112438, -132.9545669
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Devilfish Bay
Craig, AK 99921, USA
Coordinate: 56.0860956, -133.3640178

Kadake Bay

Bay of Pillars

TSA
Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
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Public Safety Department

Northern Nights Theater
500 1st St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8151794, -132.9558389
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US Temperature in san jose today Department

Petersburg Lake Cabin
Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8680556, -133.1680556
(http://www.recreation.gov/)

Alaska Sea Adventures
413 Sandy Beach Rd, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.819714, -132.932624
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Elks Lodge
301 1st St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8134595, -132.9564035
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Lee's Clothing Inc
212 S Nordic Dr, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8128217, -132.9573054
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Petersburg Vessel Owners Association
13 Gjoa St # B, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8118833, -132.9568421
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Anchor Properties
210 N Nordic Dr, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
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P-W Insurance Inc.
100 N Nordic Dr, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
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United States Postal Service
9998 State Float, Point Baker, AK 99927, USA
Coordinate: 56.35099, -133.6272
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The Salvation Army Petersburg Corps Community Center
106 Fram St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8123727, -132.9550973
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Usda Forestry Services
12 N Nordic Dr, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8114408, -132.9570767
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The Salvation Army Thrift Store
101 1st St, Petersburg, AK 1st gateway credit union online banking, USA
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Источник: https://cumaps.net/en/US/first-national-bank-alaska-palmer-branch-p4934341

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Bald eagle

Bird of prey species of North America

"American eagle" redirects here. For other uses, see American eagle (disambiguation) and Bald Eagle (disambiguation).

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two known subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting.

The bald eagle is an opportunistic feeder which subsists mainly on apply for credit one credit card online, which it swoops down and snatches from the water with its talons. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any animal species, up to 4 m (13 ft) deep, 2.5 m (8.2 ft) wide, and 1 metric ton (1.1 short tons) in weight. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years.

Bald eagles are not actually bald; the name derives from an older meaning of the word, "white headed". The adult is mainly brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males. The yellow beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown.

The bald eagle is the national bird of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal. In the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States. Populations have since recovered, and the species was removed from the U.S. government's list of endangered species on July 12, 1995, and transferred to the list of threatened species. It was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the contiguous states on June 28, 2007.

Description

The plumage of an adult bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head and tail. The tail is moderately long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in plumage coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species, in that females are 25% larger than males.[3] The beak, feet and irises are bright yellow. The legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the hind toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes.[4] The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere.[5] The adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) (from far outside the bald eagle's range) also has a brown body (albeit of somewhat more rufous hue), white head and tail, but differs from the bald eagle in having a white chest and black tip to the bill.[6]

The plumage of the immature is a dark brown overlaid with messy white streaking until the fifth (rarely fourth, very rarely third) year, when it reaches sexual maturity.[3][4] Immature bald eagles are distinguishable from the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the only other very large, non-vulturine raptorial bird in North America, in that the former has a larger, more protruding head with a larger beak, straighter edged wings which are held flat (not slightly raised) and with a stiffer wing beat and feathers which do not completely cover the legs. When seen well, the golden eagle is distinctive in plumage with a more solid warm brown color than an immature bald eagle, with a reddish-golden patch to its nape and (in immature birds) a highly contrasting set of white squares on the wing.[7] Another distinguishing feature of the immature bald eagle over the mature bird is its black, yellow-tipped beak; the mature eagle has a fully yellow beak.

The bald eagle has sometimes been considered the largest true raptor (accipitrid) in North America. The only larger species of raptor-like bird is the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), a New World vulture which today is not generally considered a taxonomic ally of true accipitrids.[8] However, the golden eagle, averaging 4.18 kg (9.2 lb) and 63 cm (25 in) in wing chord length in its American race (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis), is merely 455 g (1.003 lb) lighter in mean body mass and exceeds the bald eagle in mean wing chord length by around 3 cm (1.2 in).[6][9] Additionally, the bald eagle's close cousins, the relatively longer-winged but shorter-tailed white-tailed eagle and the overall larger Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), may, rarely, wander to coastal Alaska from Asia.[6]

This eagle has a sizable wingspan

The bald eagle has a body length of 70–102 cm (28–40 in). Typical wingspan is between 1.8 and 2.3 m (5 ft 11 in and 7 ft 7 in) and mass is normally between 3 and 6.3 kg (6.6 and 13.9 lb).[6] Females are about 25% larger than males, averaging as much as 5.6 kg (12 lb), and against the males' average weight of 4.1 kg (9.0 lb).[3][10][11][12]

The size of the bird varies by location and generally corresponds with Bergmann's rule, since the species increases in size further away from the Equator and the tropics. For example, eagles from South Carolina average 3.27 kg (7.2 lb) in mass and 1.88 m (6 ft 2 in) in wingspan, smaller than their northern counterparts.[13] One field guide in Florida listed similarly small sizes for bald eagles there, at about 4.13 kg (9.1 lb).[14] Of intermediate size, 117 migrant bald eagles in Glacier National Park were found to average 4.22 kg (9.3 lb) but this was mostly (possibly post-dispersal) juvenile eagles, with 6 adults here averaging 4.3 kg (9.5 lb).[15] Wintering eagles in Arizona (winter weights are usually the highest through the year since like many raptors they spend the highest percentage of time foraging during winter) were found to average 4.74 kg (10.4 lb).[16]

The largest eagles are from Alaska, where large females may weigh more than 7 kg (15 lb) and span 2.44 m (8 ft 0 in) across the wings.[5][17] A survey of adult weights in Alaska showed that females there weighed on average 5.35 kg (11.8 lb), respectively, and males weighed 4.23 kg (9.3 lb) against immatures which averaged 5.09 kg (11.2 lb) and 4.05 kg (8.9 lb) in the two sexes.[18][19] An Alaskan adult female eagle that was considered outsized weighed some 7.4 kg (16 lb).[20] R.S. Palmer listed a record from 1876 in Wyoming County, New York of an enormous adult bald eagle that was shot and reportedly scaled 8.2 kg (18 lb).[19] Among standard linear measurements, the wing chord is 51.5–69 cm (20.3–27.2 in), the tail is 23–37 cm (9.1–14.6 in) long, and the tarsus is 8 to 11 cm (3.1 to 4.3 in).[6][21] The culmen reportedly ranges from 3 to 7.5 cm (1.2 to 3.0 in), while the measurement from the gape to the tip of the bill is 7–9 cm (2.8–3.5 in).[21][22] The bill size is unusually variable as Alaskan eagles could be up to twice the bill length of "southern birds" (i.e. from Georgia, Louisiana, Florida), with means in between the sexes of 6.83 cm (2.69 in) and 4.12 cm (1.62 in) in culmen length, respectively, from these two areas.[23][24]

Bald eagle (0:02)

A recording of a bald eagle at Yellowstone National Park


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The call consists of weak staccato, chirping whistles, kleek kik ik ik ik, somewhat similar in cadence to a gull's call. The calls of young birds tend to be more harsh and shrill than those of adults.[6][7]

Taxonomy

The bald eagle is placed in the genus Haliaeetus (sea eagles), and gets both its common and specific scientific names from the distinctive appearance of the adult's head. Bald in the English name is from the older usage meaning "white" rather than "hairless", referring to the white head and tail feathers and their contrast with the darker body, as in piebald.[25] The genus name is New Latin: Haliaeetus (from the Ancient Greek: ἁλιάετος, romanized: haliaetos, lit. 'sea eagle'),[26] and the specific name, leucocephalus, is Latinized (Ancient Greek: λευκός, romanized: leukos, lit. 'white')[27] and (κεφαλή, kephalḗ, 'head').[28][29]

The bald eagle was one of the many species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae, under the name Falco leucocephalus.[30]

There are two recognized subspecies of bald eagle:[3][31]

  • H. l. leucocephalus(Linnaeus, 1766) is the nominate subspecies. It is found in the southern United States and Baja California Peninsula.[32]
  • H. l. washingtoniensis(Audubon, 1827), synonym H. l. alascanus Townsend, 1897, the northern subspecies, is larger than southern nominate leucocephalus. It is found in the northern United States, Canada and Alaska.[3][32]

The bald eagle forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle of Eurasia. This species pair consists of a white-headed and a tan-headed species of roughly equal size; the white-tailed eagle also has overall somewhat paler brown body plumage. The two species fill the same ecological niche in their respective ranges. The pair diverged from other sea eagles at the beginning of the Early Miocene (c. 10 Ma BP) at the latest, but possibly as early as the Early/Middle Oligocene, 28 Ma BP, if the most ancient fossil target exchange gift card for cash is correctly assigned to this genus.[33]

Range

The bald eagle's natural range bb 8 interactive droid with remote control most of North America, including most of Canada, all of the continental United States, and northern Mexico. It is the only sea eagleendemic to North America. Occupying varied habitats from the bayous of Louisiana to the Sonoran Desert and the eastern deciduous forests of Quebec and New England, northern birds are migratory, while southern birds are resident, remaining on their breeding territory all year. At minimum population, in the 1950s, it was largely restricted to Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, northern and eastern Canada, and Florida.[34] From 1966 to 2015 bald eagle numbers increased substantially throughout its winter and breeding ranges,[35] and as of 2018 the species nests in every continental state and province in the United States and Canada.[36]

The majority of bald eagles in Canada are found along the British Columbia coast while large populations are found in the forests of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario.[37] Bald eagles also congregate in certain locations in winter. From November until February, one to two thousand birds winter in Squamish, British Columbia, about halfway between Vancouver and Whistler. The birds primarily gather along the Squamish and Cheakamus Rivers, attracted by the salmon spawning in the area.[38] Similar congregations of wintering bald eagles at open lakes and rivers, wherein fish are readily available for hunting or scavenging, are observed in the northern United States.[39]

It has occurred as a vagrant twice in Ireland; a juvenile was shot illegally in Fermanagh on January 11, 1973 (misidentified at first as a white-tailed eagle), and an exhausted juvenile was captured in Kerry on November 15, 1987.[40]

Habitat

In flight during a licensed performance in Ontario, Canada
During training at the Canadian Raptor Conservancy, a facility licensed by the province of Ontario

The bald eagle occurs during its breeding season in virtually any kind of American wetland habitat such as seacoasts, rivers, large lakes or marshes or other large bodies of open water with an abundance of fish. Studies have shown a preference for bodies of water with a circumference greater than 11 km (7 mi), and lakes with an area greater than 10 km2 (4 sq mi) are optimal for breeding bald eagles.[41]

The bald eagle typically requires old-growth and mature stands of coniferous or hardwood trees for perching, roosting, and nesting. Tree species reportedly is less important to the eagle pair than the tree's height, composition and location.[42] Information needed to open a business bank account of paramount importance for this species is an abundance of comparatively large trees surrounding the body of water. Selected trees must have good visibility, be over 20 m (66 ft) tall, an open structure, and proximity to prey. If nesting trees are in standing water such as in a mangrove swamp, the nest can be located fairly low, at as low 6 m (20 ft) above the ground.[43] First national bank palmer alaska a more typical tree standing on dry ground, nests may be located from 16 to 38 m (52 to 125 ft) in height. In Chesapeake Bay, nesting trees averaged 82 cm (32 in) in diameter and 28 m (92 ft) in total height, while in Florida, the average nesting tree stands 23 m (75 ft) high and is 23 cm (9.1 in) in diameter.[44][45] Trees used for nesting in the Greater Yellowstone area average 27 m (89 ft) high.[46] Trees or forest used for nesting should have a canopy cover of no more than 60%, and no less than 20%, and be in close proximity to water.[41] Most nests have been found within 200 m (660 ft) of open water. The greatest distance from open water recorded for a bald eagle nest was over 3 km (1.9 mi), in Florida.[8]

Bald eagle nests are often very large in order to compensate for size of the birds. The largest recorded nest was found in Florida in 1963, and was measured at nearly 10 feet wide and 20 feet deep.[47]

In Florida, nesting habitats often consist of Mangrove swamps, the shorelines of lakes and rivers, pinelands, seasonally flooded flatwoods, hardwood swamps, and open prairies and pastureland with scattered tall trees. Favored nesting trees in Florida are slash pines (Pinus elliottii), longleaf pines (P. palustris), loblolly pines (P. taeda) and cypress trees, but for the southern coastal areas where mangroves are usually used.[43] In Wyoming, groves of mature cottonwoods or tall pines found along streams and rivers are typical bald eagle nesting habitats. Wyoming eagles may inhabit habitat types ranging from large, old-growth stands of ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) to narrow strips of riparian trees surrounded by rangeland.[8] In Southeast Alaska, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) provided 78% of the nesting trees used by eagles, followed by hemlocks (Tsuga) at 20%.[42] Increasingly, eagles nest in man-made reservoirs stocked with fish.[43]

With freshly caught fish in Kodiak

The bald eagle is usually quite sensitive to human activity while nesting, and is found most commonly in areas with minimal human disturbance. It chooses sites more than 1.2 km (0.75 mi) from low-density human disturbance and more than 1.8 km (1.1 mi) from medium- to high-density human disturbance.[41] However, bald eagles will occasionally nest in large estuaries or secluded groves within major cities, such as Hardtack Island on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon or John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which are surrounded by a great quantity of human activity.[48][49] Even more contrary to the usual sensitivity to disturbance, a family of bald eagles moved to the Harlem neighborhood in New York City in 2010.[50]

While wintering, bald eagles tend to be less habitat and disturbance sensitive. They will commonly congregate at spots with plentiful perches and waters with plentiful prey and (in northern climes) partially unfrozen waters. Alternately, non-breeding or wintering bald eagles, particularly in areas with a lack of human disturbance, spend their time in various upland, terrestrial habitats sometimes quite far away from waterways. In the northern half of North America (especially the interior portion), this terrestrial inhabitance by bald eagles tends to be especially prevalent because unfrozen water may not be accessible. Upland wintering habitats often consist of open habitats with concentrations of medium-sized mammals, such as prairies, meadows or tundra, or open forests with regular carrion access.[8][42]

Behavior

The bald eagle is a powerful flier, and soars on thermal convection currents. It reaches speeds of 56–70 km/h (35–43 mph) when gliding and flapping, and about 48 km/h (30 mph) while carrying fish.[51] Its dive speed is between 120–160 km/h (75–99 mph), though it seldom dives vertically.[52] Regarding their flying abilities, despite being morphologically less well adapted to faster flight than golden eagles (especially during dives), the bald eagle is considered surprisingly maneuverable in flight. Bounty hunters shooting from helicopters opined that they were far more difficult to hunt while flying than golden eagles as they would turn, double back or dive as soon as approached. Bald eagles have also been recorded catching up to and then swooping under geese in flight, turning over and thrusting their talons into the other bird's breast.[19] It is partially migratory, depending on location. If its territory has access to open water, it remains there year-round, but if the body of water freezes during the winter, making it impossible to obtain food, it migrates to the south or to the coast. A number of populations are subject to post-breeding dispersal, mainly in juveniles; Florida eagles, for example, will disperse northwards in the summer.[53] The bald eagle selects migration routes which take advantage of thermals, updrafts, and food resources. During migration, it may ascend in a thermal and then glide down, or may ascend in updrafts created by the wind against a cliff or other terrain. Migration generally takes place during the daytime, usually between the local hours of 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., when thermals are produced by the sun.[4]

Diet and feeding

The bald eagle is an opportunistic carnivore with the capacity to consume a great variety of prey. Throughout their range, fish often comprise the majority of the eagle's diet.[54] In 20 food habit studies across the species' range, fish comprised 56% of the diet of nesting eagles, birds 28%, mammals 14% and other prey 2%.[55] More than 400 species are known to be included in the bald eagle's prey spectrum, far more than its ecological equivalent in the Old World, the white-tailed eagle, is known to take. Despite its considerably lower population, the bald eagle may come in second amongst all North American accipitrids, slightly behind only the red-tailed hawk, in number of prey species recorded.[19][55][56][57]

In Southeast Alaska, fish comprise approximately 66% of the year-around diet of bald eagles and 78% of the prey brought to the nest by the parents.[58] Eagles living in the Columbia River Estuary in Oregon were found to rely on fish for 90% of their dietary intake.[59] At least 100 species of fish have been recorded in the bald eagle's diet.[56] In the Pacific Northwest, spawning trout and salmon provide most of the bald eagles' diet from late summer throughout fall.[60] Southeast Alaskan eagles largely prey on pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch) and, more locally, sockeye salmon (O. nerka), with Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), due to their large size (12 to 18 kg (26 to 40 lb) average adult size) probably being taken only as carrion.[58] Also important in the estuaries and shallow coastlines of southern Alaska are Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus).[58]

In Oregon's Columbia River Estuary, the most significant prey species were largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) (17.3% of the prey selected there), American shad (Alosa sapidissima; 13%) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10.8%).[59] Eagles living in the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland were found to subsist largely on American gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) and white bass (Morone chrysops).[62] Floridian eagles have been reported to prey on catfish, most prevalently the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) and any species in the genus Ictalurus as well as mullet, trout, needlefish, and eels.[8][43][63] Wintering eagles on the Platte River in Nebraska preyed mainly on American gizzard shads and common carp.[64] From observation in the Columbia River, 58% of the fish were caught alive by the eagle, 24% were scavenged as carcasses and 18% were pirated away from other animals.[59]

Prey fish targeted by bald eagles are often quite large. When experimenters offered fish of different sizes in the breeding season around Lake Britton in California, fish measuring 34 to 38 cm (13 to 15 in) were taken 71.8% of the time by parent eagles while fish measuring 23 to 27.5 cm (9.1 to 10.8 in) were chosen only 25% of the time.[65] At nests around Lake Superior, the remains of fish (mostly suckers) were found to average 35.4 cm (13.9 in) in total length.[66] In the Columbia River estuary, most preyed on by eagles were estimated to measure between 30 and 60 cm (12 and 24 in) in length, and carp flown with (laboriously) were up to 86 cm (34 in) in length.[59] Much larger freshwater fish, such as carp weighing 9 kg (20 lb), salmon weighing around 11 kg (24 lb), and large muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) was taken.[67][68][69] Execptionally large marine fish such as Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) have been recorded among bald eagle prey though probably are only taken as young, as small, newly mature fish, or as carrion.[57][70]

A bald eagle on a whale carcass.

Benthic fishes such as catfish are usually consumed after they die and float to the surface, though while temporarily swimming in the open may be more vulnerable to predation than most fish since their eyes focus downwards.[62] Bald eagles also regularly exploit water turbines which produce battered, stunned or dead fish easily consumed.[71] Predators who leave behind scraps of dead fish that they kill, such as brown bears (Ursus arctos), gray wolves (Canis lupus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), may be habitually followed in order to scavenge the kills secondarily.[58] Once North Pacific salmon die off after spawning, usually local bald eagles eat salmon carcasses almost exclusively. Eagles in Washington need to consume 489 g (1.078 lb) of fish each day for survival, with adults generally consuming more than juveniles and thus reducing potential energy deficiency and increasing survival during winter.[72]

Behind fish, the next most significant prey base for bald eagles are other waterbirds. The contribution of such birds to the eagle's diet is variable, depending on the quantity and availability of fish near the water's surface. Waterbirds can seasonally comprise from 7% to 80% of the prey selection for eagles in certain localities.[59][73] Overall, birds are the most diverse group in the bald eagle's prey spectrum, with 200 prey species recorded.[19][56][57] Exceptionally, in the Greater Yellowstone area, birds were eaten as regularly as fish year-around, with both prey groups comprising 43% of the studied dietary intake.[46] Preferred avian prey includes grebes, alcids, ducks, gulls, coots, herons, egrets, and geese.[74]

A nesting colony of kittiwakes and murres, with a juvenile bald eagle

Bird species most preferred as prey by eagles tend to be medium-sized, such as western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and American coots (Fulica americana) as such prey is relatively easy for the much larger eagles to catch and fly with.[8][59]American herring gull (Larus smithsonianus) are the favored avian prey species for eagles living around Lake Superior.[66] Larger waterbirds are occasionally prey as well, with wintering emperor geese (Chen canagica) and snow geese (C. caerulescens), which gather in large groups, sometimes becoming regular prey.[21][75] Other large waterbirds hunted at least occasionally by bald eagles have included adults of common loons (Gavis immer),[76]great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus),[77]sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis),[78]great blue herons (Ardea herodias),[55]Canada geese (Branta canadensis),[62]brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis),[43] and fledgling American white pelicans (P. erythrorhynchos).[79] Colony nesting seabirds may be especially vulnerable to predation. Due to easy accessibility and lack of formidable nest defense by such species, bald eagles are capable of preying on such seabirds at all ages, from eggs to mature adults, and can effectively cull large portions of a colony.[80]

Along some portions of the North Pacific coastline, bald eagles which had historically preyed mainly kelp-dwelling fish and supplementally sea otter (Enhydra lutris) pups are now preying mainly on seabird colonies since both the fish (possibly due to overfishing) and otters (cause unknown) have had precipitous population declines, causing concern for seabird conservation.[81] Because of this more extensive predation, some biologist have expressed concern that murres are heading for a "conservation collision" due to heavy eagle predation.[80] Eagles have been confirmed to attack nocturnally active, burrow-nesting seabird species such as storm petrels and shearwaters by digging out their burrows and feeding on all animals they find inside.[82] If a bald eagle flies close by, waterbirds will often fly away en masse, though in other cases they may seemingly ignore a perched eagle. If the said birds are on a colony, this exposed their unprotected eggs and nestlings to scavengers such as gulls.[80] Bird prey may occasionally be attacked in flight, with prey up to the size of Canada geese attacked and killed in mid-air.[74] Unprecedented photographs of a bald eagle unsuccessfully attempting to prey on a much larger adult trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) in mid-flight were taken in 2012.[83] While adults often actively prey on waterbirds, congregated wintering waterfowl are frequently exploited for carcasses to scavenge by immature eagles in harsh winter weather.[84] Bald eagles have been recorded as killing other raptors on occasion. In some cases, these may be attacks of competition or kleptoparasitism on rival species but ended with the consumption of the victim. Nine species each of other accipitrids and owls are known to have been preyed upon by bald eagles. Owl prey species have ranged in size from western screech-owls (Megascops kennicotti) to snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus).[19][56][57][85] Larger diurnal raptors known to have fallen victim to bald eagles have included red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis),[86]peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus),[87]northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis),[88]ospreys (Pandion haliaetus)[89] and black (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).[90]

Mammalian prey includes rabbits, hares, ground squirrels, raccoons (Procyon lotor), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), beavers (Castor canadensis), and deer fawns. Newborn, dead, sickly, or already injured mammals are often targeted. However, more formidable prey such as adults of raccoons, North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), and subadult beavers are sometimes attacked. In the Chesapeake Bay area, bald eagles are reportedly the main natural predators of raccoons.[91][92][93] Other relatively large mammalian prey known to be taken by bald eagles (at least rarely) as adults include Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis), American minkes (Mustela vision), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and domestic cats (Felis catus).[94][95][96][97][98][99][100] Additionally, red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) and bobcat (Lynx rufus) have been recorded amongst their prey, although it is unknown whether this was directly hunted or scavenged.[101][102] Where available, seal colonies can provide much food. On Protection Island, Washington, they commonly feed on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) afterbirths, still-borns and sickly seal pups.[103] On San Juan Island in Washington, introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), mainly those killed by auto accidents, comprise nearly 60% of the dietary intake of eagles.[104] In landlocked areas of North America, wintering bald eagles may become habitual predators of medium-sized mammals that occur in colonies or local concentrations, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) and jackrabbits (Lepus sp.). Like the golden eagle, bald eagles are capable of attacking jackrabbits and hares of nearly any size[8][105] Together with the golden eagle, bald eagles are occasionally accused of preying on livestock, especially sheep (Ovis aries). There are a handful of proven cases of lamb predation, some of specimens weighing up to 11 kg (24 lb), by bald business bank account offers but they are much less likely to attack a healthy lamb than a golden eagle and both species prefer native, wild prey and are unlikely to cause any extensive detriment to human livelihoods.[106] There is one case of a bald eagle killing and feeding on an adult, pregnant ewe (then joined in eating the kill by at least 3 other eagles), which, weighing on average over 60 kg (130 lb), is much larger than any other known prey taken by this species.[107]

Supplemental prey are readily taken given the opportunity. In some areas reptiles may become regular prey, especially warm areas such as Florida where reptile diversity is high. Turtles are perhaps the most regularly hunted type of reptile.[8] In coastal New Jersey, 14 of 20 studied eagle nests included remains of turtles. The main species found were common musk turtles (Sternotherus odoratus), diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) and juvenile common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). In these New Jersey nests, mainly subadult and small adults were taken, ranging in carapace length from 9.2 to 17.1 cm (3.6 to 6.7 in).[108] Similarly, many turtles were recorded in the diet in the Chesapeake Bay.[109] Snakes are also taken occasionally, especially partially aquatic ones, as are amphibians and crustaceans (largely crayfish and crabs).[43][59]

To hunt fish, the eagle swoops down over the water and snatches the fish out of the water with its talons. They eat by holding the fish in one claw and tearing the flesh with the other. Eagles have structures on their toes called spicules that allow them to grasp fish. Osprey also have this adaptation.[51] Bald eagles have powerful talons and have been recorded flying with a 6.8 kg is skim milk good for you mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fawn.[110] This feat is the record for the heaviest load carrying ever verified for a flying bird.[111] It has been estimated that the gripping power (pounds by square inch) of the bald eagle is ten times greater than that of a human.[112] Bald eagles can fly with fish at least equal to their own weight, but if the fish is too heavy to lift, the eagle may be dragged into the water. It may swim to safety, in some cases pulling the catch along to the shore as it swims,[113] but some eagles drown or succumb to hypothermia. Many sources claim that bald eagles, like all large eagles, cannot normally take flight carrying prey more than half of their own weight unless aided by favorable wind conditions.[43][75] On numerous occasions, when large prey such as mature salmon or geese are attacked, eagles have been seen to make contact and then drag the prey in a strenuously labored, low flight over the water to a bank, where they then finish off and dismember the prey.[21] When food is abundant, an eagle can gorge itself by storing up to 1 kg (2.2 lb) of food in a pouch in the throat called a crop. Gorging allows the bird to fast for several days if food becomes unavailable.[43] Occasionally, bald eagles may hunt cooperatively when confronting prey, especially relatively large prey such as jackrabbits or herons, with one bird distracting potential prey, while the other comes behind it in order to ambush it.[5][114][115] While hunting waterfowl, bald eagles repeatedly fly at a target and cause it to dive repeatedly, hoping to exhaust the victim so it can be caught (white-tailed eagles have been recorded hunting waterfowl in the same way). When hunting concentrated prey, a successful catch often results in the hunting eagle being pursued by other eagles and needing to find an isolated perch for consumption if it is able to carry it away successfully.[21]

Unlike some other eagle species, bald eagles rarely take on evasive or dangerous prey on their own. The species mainly target prey which is much smaller than themselves, with most live fish caught weighing 1 to 3 kg (2.2 to 6.6 lb) and most waterbirds preyed weighing 0.2 to 2.7 kg (0.44 to 5.95 lb).[58][75][116] On the other hand, some salmon, carp and marine fish, mammals such as deer fawns and lambs and first national bank palmer alaska such as swans taken by bald eagles are likely to have been up to at least twice the bald eagles' own size (even if the eagle was unable to fly with it).[19][55][56] They obtain much of their food as carrion or via a practice known as kleptoparasitism, by which they steal prey away from other predators. Due to their dietary habits, bald eagles are frequently viewed in a negative light by humans.[8] Thanks to their superior foraging ability and experience, adults are generally more likely to hunt live prey than immature eagles, which often obtain their food from scavenging.[117][118] They are not very selective about the condition or origin, whether provided by humans, other animals, auto accidents or natural causes, of a carcass's presence, but will avoid eating carrion where disturbances from humans are a regular occurrence. They will scavenge carcasses up to the size of whales, though carcasses of ungulates and large fish are seemingly preferred.[21] Bald eagles also may sometimes feed on material scavenged or stolen from campsites and picnics, as well as garbage dumps (dump usage is habitual mainly in Alaska).[119]

When competing for food, eagles will usually dominate other fish-eaters and scavengers, aggressively displacing mammals such as coyotes (Canis latrans) and foxes, and birds such as corvids, gulls, vultures and other raptors.[119] Occasionally, coyotes, bobcats (Lynx rufus) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) can displace eagles from carrion, usually less confident immature birds, as has been recorded in Maine.[120] Bald eagles are less active, bold predators than golden eagles and get relatively more of their food as carrion and from kleptoparasitism (although it is now generally thought that golden eagles eat more carrion than was previously assumed).[9] However, the two species are roughly equal in size, aggressiveness and physical strength and so competitions can go either way. Neither species is known to be dominant, and the outcome depends on the size and disposition of the individual eagles involved.[21] Wintering bald and golden eagles in Utah both sometimes won conflicts, though in one recorded instance a single bald eagle successfully displaced two consecutive golden eagles from a kill.[121]

Though bald eagles face few natural threats, an unusual attacker comes in the form of the common loon (G. immer), which is also taken by eagles as prey. While common loons normally avoid conflict, they are highly territorial and will attack predators and competitors by stabbing at them with their knife-like bill; as the range of the bald eagle has increased following conservation efforts, these interactions have been observed on several occasions, including a fatality of a bald eagle in Maine that is presumed to have come about as a result first national bank palmer alaska it attacking a nest, then having a fatal puncture wound inflicted by one or both loon parents.[122]

The bald eagle is thought to be much more numerous in North America than the golden eagle, with the bald species estimated to number at least 150,000 individuals, about twice as many golden eagles there are estimated to live in North America.[9][36] Due to this, bald eagles often outnumber golden eagles at attractive food sources.[9] Despite the potential for contention between these animals, in New Jersey during winter, a golden eagle and numerous bald eagles were observed to hunt snow geese alongside each other without conflict. Similarly, both eagle species have been recorded, via video-monitoring, to feed on gut piles and carcasses of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in remote forest clearings in the first national bank palmer alaska Appalachian Mountains without apparent conflict.[9] Bald eagles as frequently mobbed by smaller raptors, due to their infrequent but unpredictable tendency to hunt other birds of prey.[121] Many bald eagles are habitual kleptoparasites, especially in winters when fish are harder to come by. They have been recorded stealing fish from other predators such as ospreys, herons and even otters.[21][123] They have also been recorded opportunistically pirating birds from peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), prairie dogs from ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) and even jackrabbits from golden eagles.[124][125] When they approach scavengers like dogs, gulls or vultures at carrion sites, they often aggressively attack them and try to force them to disgorge their food.[43] Healthy adult bald eagles are first national bank palmer alaska preyed on in the wild and are thus considered apex predators.[126]

Reproduction

Bald eagles are sexually mature at four or five years of age. When they are old enough to breed, they often return to the area where they were born. It is thought that bald eagles mate for life. However, if one member of a pair dies or disappears, the survivor will choose a new mate. A pair which has repeatedly failed in breeding attempts may split and look for new mates.[127] Bald eagle courtship involves elaborate, spectacular calls and flight displays by the males. The flight includes swoops, chases, and cartwheels, in which they fly high, lock farmers grain of central illinois, and free-fall, separating just before hitting the ground.[55][128][129] Usually, a territory defended by a mature pair will be 1 to 2 km (0.62 to 1.24 mi) of waterside habitat.[8]

Compared to most other raptors which mostly nest in April or May, bald eagles are early breeders: nest building or reinforcing is often by mid-February, egg laying is often late February (sometimes during deep snow in the North), and incubation is usually mid-March and early May. Eggs hatch from mid April to early May, and the young fledge late June to early July.[8] The nest is the largest of any bird in North America; it is used repeatedly over many years and with new material added each year may eventually be as large as 4 m (13 ft) deep, 2.5 m (8.2 ft) across and weigh 1 metric ton (1.1 short tons);[3] one nest in Florida was found to be 6.1 m (20 ft) deep, 2.9 meters (9.5 ft) across, and to weigh 3 short tons (2.7 metric tons).[130] This nest is on record as the largest tree nest ever recorded for any animal.[131] Usually nests are used for under five years or so, as they either collapse in storms or break the branches supporting them by their sheer weight. However, one nest in the Midwest was occupied continuously for at least 34 years.[43] The nest is built out of branches, usually in large trees found near water. When breeding where there are no trees, the bald eagle will nest on the ground, as has been recorded largely in areas largely isolated from terrestrial predators, such as Amchitka Island in Alaska.[119]

In Sonora, Mexico, eagles have been observed nesting on top of Hecho catcuses (Pachycereus pectinaboriginum).[132] Nests located on cliffs and rock pinnacles have been reported historically in California, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah, but currently are only verified to occur only in Alaska and Arizona.[8] The eggs average about 73 mm (2.9 in) long, ranging from 58 to 85 mm (2.3 to 3.3 in), and have a breadth of 54 mm (2.1 in), ranging from 47 to 63 mm (1.9 to 2.5 in).[51][55] Eggs in Alaska averaged 130 g (4.6 oz) in mass, while in Saskatchewan they averaged 114.4 g (4.04 oz).[133][134] As with their ultimate body size, egg size tends to increase further away from the Equator.[55] Eagles produce between one and three eggs per year, two being typical. Rarely, four eggs have been found in nests but these may be exceptional cases of polygyny.[135] Eagles in captivity have been capable of producing up to seven eggs.[136] It is rare for all three chicks to successfully reach the fledgling stage. The oldest chick often bears the advantage of larger size and louder voice, which tends to draw the parents' attention towards it.[8] Occasionally, as is recorded in many large raptorial birds, the oldest sibling sometimes attacks and kills its younger sibling(s), especially early in the nesting period when their sizes are most different.[8] However, nearly half of known bald eagles produce two fledglings (more rarely three), unlike in some other "eagle" species such as some in the genus Aquila, in which a second fledgling is typically observed in less than 20% of nests, despite two eggs typically being laid.[18] Both the male and female take turns incubating the eggs, but the female does most of the sitting. The parent not incubating will hunt for food or look for nesting material during this stage. For the first two to three weeks of the nestling period, at least one adult is at the nest almost 100% of the time. After five to six weeks, the attendance of parents usually drops off considerably (with the parents often perching in trees nearby).[8]

A young eaglet can gain up to 170 g (6.0 oz) a day, the fastest growth rate of any North American bird.[43] The young eaglets pick up and manipulate sticks, play tug of war with each other, practice holding things in their talons, and stretch and flap their wings. By eight weeks, the eaglets are strong enough to flap their wings, lift their feet off the nest platform, and rise up in the air.[43] The young fledge at anywhere from 8 to 14 weeks of age, though will remain close to the nest and attended to by their parents for a further 6 weeks. Juvenile eagles first start dispersing away from their parents about 8 weeks after they fledge. Variability in departure date related to effects of sex and hatching order on growth and development.[134] For the next four years, immature eagles wander widely in search of food until they attain adult plumage and are eligible to reproduce.[137] Additionally, as shown by a pair of eagles in Shoal Harbor Migratory Bird Sanctuary located near Sidney, British Columbia on June 9, 2017, bald eagles have been recorded to occasionally adopt other raptor fledglings into their nests. The pair of eagles in question were recorded carrying a juvenile red-tailed hawk back to their nest, whereupon the chick was accepted into the family by both the parents and the eagles' three fledgelings. Whether or not the chick survived remained to be seen at the time, as young bald eagles are known for killing their siblings. However, the aggression of the red-tailed hawk may ensure its survival, as the hawks are well known for their ability to successfully defend against an eagle attack.[138] Six weeks after, however, it was discovered that the hawk, nicknamed "Spunky" by biologists monitoring the nest, had grown to fledgeling size and was learning how to hunt, indicating that it successfully survived.[139]

Longevity and mortality

The average lifespan of bald eagles in the wild is around 20 years, with the oldest confirmed one having been 38 years of age.[140] In captivity, they often live somewhat longer. In one instance, a captive individual in New York lived for nearly 50 years. As with size, the average lifespan of an eagle population appears to be influenced by its location and access to prey.[141] As they are no longer heavily persecuted, adult mortality is quite low. In one study of Florida eagles, adult bald eagles reportedly had 100% annual survival rate.[9] In Prince William Sound in Alaska, adults had an annual survival rate of 88% even after the Exxon Valdez oil spill adversely affected eagles in the area.[142] Of 1,428 individuals from across the range necropsied by National Wildlife Health Center from 1963 to 1984, 329 (23%) eagles died from trauma, primarily impact with wires and vehicles; 309 (22%) died from gunshot; 158 (11%) died from poisoning; 130 (9%) died from electrocution; 68 (5%) died from trapping; 110 (8%) from emaciation; and 31 (2%) from disease; cause of death was undetermined in 293 (20%) of cases.[143] In this study, 68% of mortality was human-caused.[143] Today, eagle-shooting is believed to be considerably reduced due to the species' protected status.[144] In one case, an adult eagle investigating a peregrine falcon nest for prey items sustained a concussion from a swooping parent peregrine, and ultimately died days later from it.[145] An early natural history video depicting a cougar (Puma concolor) ambushing and killing an immature bald eagle feeding at a rabbit carcass is viewable online, although this film may have been staged.[146]

Most non-human-related mortality involves nestlings or eggs. Around 50% of eagles survive their first year.[137] However, in the Chesapeake Bay area, 100% of 39 radio-tagged nestlings survived to their first year.[147] Occasionally, nestling or egg fatalities are due to nest collapses, starvation, sibling aggression or inclement weather. Another significant cause of egg and nestling mortality is predation. These have been verified to be preyed by large gulls, corvids (including ravens, crows and magpies), wolverines (Gulo gulo), fishers (Pekania pennanti), red-tailed hawks, owls, other eagles, bobcats, American black bears (Ursus americanus) and raccoons.[133][148][149][150][151][152][153][154] If food access is low, parental attendance at the nest may be lower because both parents may have to forage, thus resulting in less protection.[18] Nestlings are usually exempt from predation by terrestrial carnivores that are poor tree-climbers, but Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) occasionally snatched nestlings from ground nests on Amchitka Island in Alaska before they were extirpated from the island.[119] The bald eagle will defend its nest fiercely from all comers and has even repelled attacks from bears, having been recorded knocking a black bear out of a tree when the latter tried to climb a tree holding nestlings.[155]

Relationship with humans

Population decline and recovery

Inside a waste collection and transfer facility, in Homer, Alaska, United States

Once a common sight in much of the continent, the bald eagle was severely affected in the mid-20th century by a variety of factors, among them the thinning of egg shells attributed to use of the pesticide DDT.[156] Bald eagles, like many birds of prey, were especially affected by DDT due to biomagnification. DDT itself was not lethal to the adult bird, but it interfered with their calcium metabolism, making them either sterile or unable to lay healthy eggs; many of their eggs were too brittle to withstand the weight of a brooding adult, making it nearly impossible for them to hatch.[34] It is estimated that the early 18th century the bald eagle population was 300,000–500,000,[157] but by the 1950s there were only 412 nesting pairs in the 48 contiguous states of the US.[158][159] Other factors in bald eagle population reductions were a widespread loss of suitable habitat, as well as both legal and illegal shooting. In 1930 a New York City ornithologist wrote that in the state of Alaska in the previous 12 years approximately 70,000 bald eagles had been shot. Many of the hunters killed the bald eagles under the long-held beliefs that bald eagles grabbed young lambs and even children with their talons, yet the birds were innocent of most of these alleged acts of predation (lamb predation is rare, human predation is thought to be non-existent).[160] Later illegal shooting was described as "the leading cause of direct mortality in both adult and immature bald eagles," according to a 1978 report in the Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. In 1984, the National Wildlife Federation listed hunting, power-line electrocution, and collisions in flight as the leading causes of eagle deaths. Bald eagles have also been killed by oil, lead, and mercury pollution, and by human and predator intrusion at nests.[161]

The species was first protected in the U.S. and Canada by the 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty, later extended to all of North America. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, approved by the U.S. Congress in 1940, protected the bald eagle and the golden eagle, prohibiting commercial trapping and killing of the birds. The bald eagle was declared an endangered species in the U.S. in 1967, and amendments to the 1940 act between 1962 and 1972 further restricted commercial uses and increased penalties for violators.[162][163] Perhaps most significant in the species' recovery, in 1972, DDT was banned from usage in the United States due to the fact that it inhibited the reproduction of many birds.[164] DDT was completely banned in Canada in 1989, though its use had been highly restricted since the late 1970s.[165]

First-year juvenile bald eagle at Anacortes, Washington United States

With regulations in place and DDT banned, the eagle population rebounded. The bald eagle can be found in growing concentrations throughout the United States and Canada, particularly near large bodies of water. In the early 1980s, the estimated total population was 100,000 individuals, with 110,000–115,000 by 1992;[3] the U.S. state with the largest resident population is Alaska, with about 40,000–50,000, with the next highest population the Canadian province of British Columbia with 20,000–30,000 in 1992.[3] Obtaining a precise count of the bald eagle population is extremely difficult. The most recent data submitted by individual states was in 2006, when 9789 breeding pairs were reported.[166] For some time, the stronghold breeding population of bald eagles in the lower 48 states was in Florida, where over a thousand pairs have held on while populations in other states were significantly reduced by DDT use. Today, the contiguous state with the largest number of breeding pairs of eagles is Minnesota with an estimated 1,312 pairs, surpassing Florida's most recent count of 1,166 pairs. 23, or nearly half, of the 48 contiguous states now have at least 100 breeding pairs of bald eagles.[36] In Washington State, there were only 105 occupied nests in 1980. That number increased by about 30 per year, so that by 2005 there were 840 occupied nests. 2005 was the last year that the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife counted occupied nests. Further population increases in Washington may be limited by the availability of late winter food, particularly salmon.[167]

The bald eagle was officially removed from the U.S. federal government's list of endangered species on July 12, 1995, by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, when it was reclassified from "endangered" to "threatened." On July 6, 1999, a proposal was initiated "To Remove the Bald Eagle in the Lower 48 States From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife." It was de-listed on June 28, 2007.[168] It has also been assigned a risk level of least concern category on the IUCN Red List.[2] In the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 an estimated 247 were killed in Prince William Sound, though the local population returned to its pre-spill level by 1995.[5] In some areas, the increase in eagles has led to decreases in other bird populations[169] and the eagles may be considered a pest.[170]

Killing permits

In December 2016, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed quadrupling the amount of bald eagles that can be killed by the wind electric generation industry without paying a penalty to 4,200 per year. If issued, the permits would last 30 years, six times the current 5-year permits.[171][172]

In captivity

Permits are required to keep bald eagles in captivity in the United States. Permits are primarily issued to public educational institutions, and the eagles which they show are permanently injured individuals which cannot be released to the wild. The facilities where eagles are kept must be equipped with adequate caging and facilities, as well as workers experienced in the handling and care of eagles.[173] The bald eagle can be long-lived in captivity if well cared for, but does not breed well even under the best conditions.[174]

In Canada[175] and in England[176] a license is required to keep bald bank account free mp3 download for falconry.[177] Bald eagles cannot legally be kept for falconry in the United States, but a license may be issued in some jurisdictions to allow for using such eagles to perform in birds of prey flight shows.[178][179]

Cultural significance

The bald eagle is important in various Native American cultures and, as the national bird of the United States, is prominent in seals and logos, coinage, postage stamps, and other items relating to the U.S. federal government.

Role in Native American victorias secret pink glitter perfume bald eagle is a sacred bird in some North American cultures, and its feathers, like those of the golden eagle, are central to many religious and spiritual customs among Native Americans. Eagles are considered spiritual messengers between gods and humans by some cultures.[180] Many pow wow dancers use the eagle claw as part of their regalia as well. Eagle feathers are often used in traditional ceremonies, particularly in the construction of regalia worn and as a part of fans, bustles and head dresses. In the Navajo tradition an eagle feather is represented to be a protector, along with the feather Navajo medicine men use the leg and wing bones for ceremonial whistles.[181] The Lakota, for instance, give an eagle feather as a symbol of honor to person who achieves a task. In modern times, it may be given on an event such as a graduation from college.[182] The Pawnee considered eagles as symbols of fertility because their nests are built high off the ground and because they fiercely protect their young.[183] The Choctaw considered the bald eagle, who has direct contact with the upper world of the sun, as a symbol of peace.[184]

During the Sun Dance, which is practiced by many Plains Indian tribes, the eagle is represented in several ways. The eagle nest is represented by the fork of the lodge where the dance is held. A whistle made from the wing bone of an eagle is used during the course of the dance. Also during the dance, a medicine man may direct his fan, which is made of eagle feathers, to people who seek to be healed. The medicine man touches the fan to the center pole and then to the patient, in order to transmit power from the pole to the patient. The fan is then held up toward the sky, so that the eagle may carry the prayers for the sick to the Creator.[185]

Current eagle feather law stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain or possess bald or golden eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. The constitutionality of these laws has been questioned by Native American groups on the basis that it violates the First Amendment by first national bank palmer alaska ability to practice their religion freely.[186][187]

The National Eagle Repository, a division of the FWS, exists as a means to receive, process, and store bald and golden eagles which are found dead, and to distribute the eagles, their parts and feathers, to federally recognized Native American tribes for use in religious ceremonies.[188]

National bird of the United States

Further information: Great Seal of the United States § Obverse

The bald eagle is the national bird of the United States of America.[189] The founders of the First national bank palmer alaska States were fond of comparing their new republic with the Roman Republic, in which eagle imagery (usually involving the golden eagle) was prominent. On June 20, 1782, the Continental Congress adopted the design for the Great Seal of the United States, depicting a bald eagle grasping 13 arrows and an olive branch with thirteen leaves with its talons.[190][191][192] As with the rattlesnake used during the Revolutionary War, part of the significance of the bald eagle (as opposed to the golden eagle) was its being native to the Americas, showing a separate identity from the Old World.

The bald eagle appears on most official seals of the U.S. government, including the presidential seal, the presidential flag, and in the logos of many U.S. federal agencies. Between 1916 and 1945, the presidential flag (but not the seal) showed an eagle facing to its left (the viewer's right), which gave rise to the urban legend that the flag is changed to have the eagle face towards the olive branch in peace, and towards the arrows in wartime.[193]

Contrary to popular legend, there is no evidence that Benjamin Franklin ever publicly supported the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), rather than the bald eagle, as a symbol of the United States. However, in a letter written to his daughter in 1784 from Paris, criticizing the Society of the Cincinnati, he stated his personal distaste for the bald eagle's behavior. In the letter Franklin states:[194]

For my own part. I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen the representative of our country. He is a bird of bad moral character. He does not get his living honestly . besides he is a rank coward: The little king bird not bigger than a sparrow attacks him boldly and drives him out of the district.

Franklin opposed the creation of the Society because he viewed it, with its hereditary membership, as a noble order unwelcome in the newly independent Republic, contrary to the ideals of Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, for whom the Society was named. His reference to the two kinds of birds is interpreted as a satirical comparison between ode to the west wind imagery Society of the Cincinnati and Cincinnatus.[195]

Popular culture

Largely because of its role as a symbol of the United States, but also because of its being a large predator, the bald eagle has many representations in popular culture. Not all of these representations are accurate. In particular, the movie or television bald eagle typically has a bold, powerful cry. Actual bald eagle vocalizations are much softer and more chirpy than popular depictions; in movies and television, the call of the red-tailed hawk is often substituted for bald eagles.[196]

See also

References

  1. ^"Haliaeetus leucocephalus Linnaeus 1766 (bald eagle)". PBDB.
  2. ^ abBirdLife International (2016). "Haliaeetus leucocephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22695144A93492523. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22695144A93492523.en. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  3. ^ abcdefghdel Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J., eds. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol. 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona ISBN 84-87334-15-6
  4. ^ abcHarris. "Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus". University of Michigan Museum of Geology. Archived from the original on June 4, 2007. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  5. ^ abcd"Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Archived from the original on June 2, 2007. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  6. ^ abcdefFerguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. (2001). Raptors of the World. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 717–19. ISBN .
  7. ^ abSibley, D. (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. National Audubon SocietyISBN 0-679-45122-6 p. 127
  8. ^ abcdefghijklmnoTravsky, A. & Beauvais, G. "Species Assessment for Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in Wyoming"(PDF). United States Department of the Interior- Bureau of Land Management. Archived from the original(PDF) on June 2, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  9. ^ abcdefJeff Watson (2010). The Golden Eagle. A&C Black. ISBN . Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  10. ^Bird, D.M. (2004). The Bird Almanac: A Guide to Essential Facts and Figures of the World's Birds. Ontario: Firefly Books. ISBN .
  11. ^"Bald Eagle Facts and Information". Eagles.org. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
  12. ^Dunning, Jr., J.B., ed. (1993). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press, Ann Arbor.
  13. ^Murphy, T. & Hope, C. "Bald Eagles in South Carolina"(PDF). Department of Natural Resources of South Carolina. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  14. ^Maehr, D. S., & Kale, H. W. (2005). Florida's Birds: A Field Guide and Reference. Pineapple Press Inc.
  15. ^Patterson, D.A., McClelland, B.R., Shea, D.S. & McClelland, P.T. (1998). "Size Variation of Migrant Bald Eagles at Glacier National Park, Montana". J. Raptor Res. 32(2):120–25.
  16. ^Zylo, M. T. (2012). "Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering in northern Arizona select perches based on food availability, visibility and cover" (Doctoral dissertation, Northern Arizona University).
  17. ^"ARKive- Bald Eagle video, photos and facts". ARKive.org- Images of Life on Earth. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  18. ^ abcEagles, Hawks and Falcons of the World by Leslie Brown & Dean Amadon. The Wellfleet Press (1986), ISBN 978-1-55521-472-2.
  19. ^ abcdefgPalmer, R. S. (Ed.). (1988). Handbook of North American Birds Volume VI: Diurnal Raptors (Part 1). Yale University Press.
  20. ^Gende, S. M. (2008).

    First national bank palmer alaska -

    Perspectives on the Breeding Biology of Bald Eagles in Southeast Alaska". Bald Eagles in Alaska, Bruce A. Wright and Phil Schempf, eds. University of Alaska Southeast.
  21. ^ abcdefghBald Eagle. Birds of North America Online. Bna.birds.cornell.edu. Retrieved on December 24, 2012.
  22. ^Schempf, P. R (1997). "Bald eagle longevity record from Southeastern Alaska". Journal of Field Ornithology. 68 (1): 150–51.
  23. ^Imler, R. H., & Kalmbach, E. R. (1955). The Bald Eagle and its economic status (Vol. 30). US Government Printing Office.
  24. ^Friedman, H., & Ridgway, R. (1950). The birds of north and middle America. Part XI. Cathartidae to Falconidae. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. no. 50.
  25. ^Dudley, Karen (1998). Bald Eagles. Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers. p. 7. ISBN .
  26. ^ἁλιάετος in Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Jones, Sir Henry Stuart, with the assistance of McKenzie, Roderick. Oxford: Clarendon Press. In the Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.
  27. ^λευκός in Liddell and Scott
  28. ^κεφαλή in Liddell and Scott
  29. ^Joshua Dietz. "What's in a Name". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on August 5, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
  30. ^Linnaeus, Carolus (1766). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata (in Latin). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).
  31. ^"Haliaeetus leucocephalus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  32. ^ abBrown, N. L. "Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus". Endangered Species Recovery Program. Archived from the original on September 12, 2006. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  33. ^Wink, M (1996). "A mtDNA phylogeny of sea eagles (genus Haliaeetus) based on nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene"(PDF). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 24 (7–8): 783–91. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(97)81217-3. Archived(PDF) from the original on October 29, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
  34. ^ abBull J; Farrand, J Jr (1987). Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds: Eastern Region. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 468–69. ISBN .
  35. ^"BBS Trend Maps – Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus". Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  36. ^ abcPopulation report. Biologicaldiversity.org. Retrieved on December 24, 2012.
  37. ^"Animal Facts: Bald Eagle". August 14, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  38. ^"Bald Eagle Viewing Directory". Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  39. ^"Making their comeback". oswegocountynewsnow.com. January 22, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  40. ^"Bald Eagle Lands Exhausted in Ireland", Associated Press, December 15, 1987.
  41. ^ abc"Wildlife Species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
  42. ^ abcSuring, L. "Habitat Relationships of Bald Eagles in Alaska"(PDF). U.S. Forest Service. Archived from the original(PDF) on June 5, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  43. ^ abcdefghijkl"The Bald Eagle in Florida"(PDF). Florida Power & Light Company. Archived from the original(PDF) on October 6, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  44. ^Andrew, J. M.; Mosher, J. A. (1982). "Bald Eagle nest site selection and nesting habitat in Maryland". Journal of Wildlife Management. 46 (2): 382–90. doi:10.2307/3808650. JSTOR 3808650.
  45. ^Wood, P. B.; Edwards, T. C.; Collopy, M. W. (1989). "Characteristics of Bald Eagle nesting habitat in Florida". Journal of Wildlife Management. 53 (2): 441–449. doi:10.2307/3801148. JSTOR 3801148.
  46. ^ abSwenson, J. E.; Alt, K. L.; Eng, R. L. (1986). "Ecology of Bald Eagles in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem". Wildlife Monogram. 95 (95): 3–46. JSTOR 3830668.
  47. ^"Largest bird's nest". Guinnessworldrecords.com. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  48. ^"Ross Island FAQ"(PDF). Willamette Riverkeeper website. Willamette Riverkeeper. 2009. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 5, 2010. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  49. ^"Bald eagles make nest in Heinz Wildlife Refuge". Delaware Daily Times website. Delaware Daily Times. 2010. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
  50. ^Carlson, Jen (February 5, 2010). "Bald Eagle Spotted Near Fairway"
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bald_eagle

First National Bank Alaska Palmer Branch

Other Places:

Lifesafer Ignition Interlock (Cng)
10 N 2nd St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8112438, -132.9545669
(https://www.lifesafer.com/locations/Alaska/Petersburg/3176)

Devilfish Bay
Craig, AK 99921, USA
Coordinate: 56.0860956, -133.3640178

Kadake Bay

Bay of Pillars

TSA
Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8125, -132.9555556
(https://www.tsa.gov/)

Public Safety Department

Northern Nights Theater
500 1st St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8151794, -132.9558389
(http://northernnightstheater.org/)

US Agricultural Department

Petersburg Lake Cabin
Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8680556, -133.1680556
(http://www.recreation.gov/)

Alaska Sea Adventures
413 Sandy Beach Rd, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.819714, -132.932624
(https://www.yachtalaska.com/)

Elks Lodge
301 1st St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8134595, -132.9564035
(https://www.elks.org/)

Lee's Clothing Inc
212 S Nordic Dr, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8128217, -132.9573054
(https://www.leesclothing.com/)

Petersburg Vessel Owners Association
13 Gjoa St # B, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8118833, -132.9568421
(http://pvoaonline.org/)

Anchor Properties
210 N Nordic Dr, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8127497, -132.9572586
(http://www.homespetersburg.com/)

P-W Insurance Inc.
100 N Nordic Dr, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8118661, -132.95722
(https://www.p-wins.com/)

United States Postal Service
9998 State Float, Point Baker, AK 99927, USA
Coordinate: 56.35099, -133.6272
(https://tools.usps.com/find-location.htm?location=1377912&utm_s)

The Salvation Army Petersburg Corps Community Center
106 Fram St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8123727, -132.9550973
(https://petersburg.salvationarmy.org/)

Usda Forestry Services
12 N Nordic Dr, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8114408, -132.9570767
(http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=FOREST_FORES)

The Salvation Army Thrift Store
101 1st St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8113258, -132.9559727
(https://www.salvationarmy.org/)

Alaska Housing Finance Corporation
102 1st St, Petersburg, AK 99833, USA
Coordinate: 56.8139435, -132.9562852
(https://www.ahfc.us/)

Источник: https://cumaps.net/en/US/first-national-bank-alaska-palmer-branch-p4934341

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Источник: https://runsignup.com/Race/Results/67161/?customResultsPageId=25419

Banks in Palmer AlaskaJuly 17th, 2009

Categories: Businesses

No need to drive all the way to Wasilla for your personal banking, Palmer has 5 different banks of its own, right here in downtown!

A Wells Fargo Branch, on S Bailey St

First National Bank, on Evergreen Ave

Matanuska Valley Federal Credit Union, on S Bailey St

Key Bank in Key Bank Plaza

Alaska USA Federal Credit Union on the Palmer-Wasilla Hwy

Related

Written by

Источник: http://palmeralaska.net/2009/07/17/banks-in-palmer-alaska/

First National Bank of Alaska Addition

Year Completed: 2010
Total sf: 550 sf New Construction
Contractor: F-E Contracting

The First National Bank of Alaska’s Palmer Branch required an extensive renovation of all interior public spaces, casework, and an expansion of their lending department and offices. The addition of only 550 s.f. of new office space presented challenges when a match for the 1989 brick was not available. A colorful new pallet of metal and composite wood panels was utilized to update the exterior of the bank while merging new and old. The project was competitively bid and was awarded and constructed within the Owners budget. Three dimensional construction documents were employed to clearly communicate to both client and contractor the complexities of the casework demolition, salvage, and extent of new work. The project was completed while the bank remained in operation. Wolf Architecture worked closely with the client and Contractor to effectively manage construction and costs resulting in a dramatically modernized facility.

Источник: http://www.wolfarchitecture.com/commercial-new/2015/7/29/first-national-bank-of-alaska-addition

First National Bank Alaska - Palmer Branch

The following are this First National Bank Alaska branch's opening and closing hours:

Monday
10:00 AM - 6:00 PM

Tuesday
10:00 AM - 6:00 PM

Wednesday
10:00 AM - 6:00 PM

Thursday
10:00 AM - 6:00 PM


Friday
10:00 AM - 6:00 PM

Saturday
10:00 AM - 3:00 PM

Sunday
Closed



The Palmer Branch location of First National Bank Alaska was established Mar 24, 1976 (45 years and 8 months ago). They are one of 28 branch locations operated by First National Bank Alaska. For ATM locations, drive-thru hours, deposit info, and more information consider visiting their online banking site at: www.fnbalaska.com
Bank's Headquarters:

101 W. 36th Avenue
Anchorage, Alaska 99510

Became FDIC Insured:

Apr 4, 1944

Источник: https://www.wheresmybank.com/branch-237370-first-national-bank-alaska-palmer-branch

Search PPP Loan List in PALMER, Alaska

MATANUSKA TELEPHONE ASSOCIATION5928882CoBank ACBCRUZ CONSTRUCTION INC5019000First National Bank AlaskaNEW HORIZONS TELECOM INC.2009300KeyBank National AssociationALASKA DIRECTIONAL LLC2000000Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationAIRFRAMES ALASKA LLC836647Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA FAMILY SERVICES, INC.829935First National Bank AlaskaALASKA AGGREGATE PRODUCTS, LLC.813724First National Bank AlaskaSPECIALIZED TRANSPORT & RIGGING LLC8080001st Source BankAIRFRAMES ALASKA, LLC807705Matanuska Valley FCUBIG DREAMS TRANSPORT LTD710995Matanuska Valley FCUTAYLOR FIRE PROTECTION SERVICES, LLC623067First National Bank AlaskaTAYLOR FIRE PROTECTION SERVICES LLC605232First National Bank AlaskaALASKAN AUTO INC594389First National Bank AlaskaNORTHERN INDUSTRIAL TRAINININGLLC517352First National Bank AlaskaNOTHERN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING, LLC467099First National Bank AlaskaANESTHESIA CARE ASSOCIATES467098Northrim BankGREAT NORTHERN ENGINEERING466400KeyBank National AssociationGRAHAM INDUSTRIAL COATINGS LLC462075First National Bank AlaskaVALLEY HOTEL INC.440527First National Bank AlaskaTHE CARPET MAN INC.407347Northrim BankWHITE MOUNTAIN CONSTRUCTION LLC390393First National Bank AlaskaALASKA STATE FAIR INC386992Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationALASKA STATE FAIR INC384742Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationTIER I VETERINARY MEDICAL CENTER, LLC380589First National Bank AlaskaREMOTE ALASKA SOLUTIONS373740First National Bank AlaskaTRIVERUS, LLC367218Northrim BankADAMS, INC354064First National Bank AlaskaREMOTE ALASKA SOLUTIONS, INC348445First National Bank AlaskaPALMER ALEHOUSE LLC332007KeyBank National AssociationCO-OCCURRING DISORDERS INSTITUTE, INC329815Matanuska Valley FCUADAMS INC322100First National Bank AlaskaF-E CONTRACTING INC.315065First National Bank AlaskaVALLEY HOTEL, INC311611First National Bank AlaskaAXYS LLC310914KeyBank National AssociationAXYS, LLC310914KeyBank National AssociationGRAHAM INDUSTRIAL COATINGS, LLC310000Mt. McKinley BankF-E CONTRACTING INC304173First National Bank AlaskaAK CONSTRUCTORS, LLC271001First National Bank AlaskaDIRTWORKS INC265220Matanuska Valley FCUTRANQUILITY MANOR, LLC242129First National Bank AlaskaMAT-SU SURGICAL ASSOCIATES APC241083Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationALASKA COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION239127First National Bank AlaskaWILSON BROTHERS DISTRIBUTION CO., INC.224698First National Bank AlaskaDOOR TECH, LLC215930Northrim BankH CONSTRUCTION LLC215538Northrim BankCOMBS INSURANCE AGENCY, INC206199First National Bank AlaskaMETAL CREEK MECHANICAL, LLC204136Northrim BankARCTIC CHIROPRACTIC EAST MAT-SU, LLC201168First National Bank AlaskaYUKUSKOKON PROFESSIONAL SERVICES LLC200000Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationMIDNIGHT SUN ONCOLOGY PARTNERS, LLC199869Northrim BankTURKEY RED LLC198583Matanuska Valley FCUSELWAY CORP197742First National Bank AlaskaNORTHSTAR EXCAVATION AND ASPHALT, INC197145Northrim BankRED POINT CONSTRUCTION, LLC196908First National Bank AlaskaGENERAL CONSTRUCTORS LLC196016Northrim BankGENERAL CONSTRUCTORS, LLC196016Northrim BankALASKA FAMILY HEALTH CENTERS, LLC195355Northrim BankMETAL CREEK AUTOBODY LLC190875Northrim BankBORE TIDE CONSTRUCTION LLC190062First National Bank AlaskaMAT SU EAR NOSE THROAT FACIAL PLASTICS188917Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationALASKA COMMUITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION182797First National Bank AlaskaNORTH STAR ANIMAL HOSPITAL P.C.179025First National Bank AlaskaVAGABOND BLUES INC178853Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS LLC174859Northrim BankH CONSTRUCTION LLC173400Northrim BankTRI-JET PRECISION CUTTING SERVICES LLC170898Northrim BankSOUND DECISIONS LLC167327First National Bank AlaskaBORE TIDE CONSTRUCTION LLC164694First National Bank AlaskaH & H SHEET METAL, INC.163181First National Bank AlaskaARCTIC CHIROPRACTIC JUNEAU162825First National Bank AlaskaVALLEY UPRIGHT IMAGING LLC161545First National Bank AlaskaRECON LLC159520Matanuska Valley FCUADVANCED DATA & FIBER PROFESSIONALS INC156132Matanuska Valley FCUADVANCED DATA & FIBER PROFESSIONALS INC.156132Matanuska Valley FCUPOLYSEAL INSULATION, LLC150000KeyBank National AssociationPOLYSEAL INSULATION LLC150000KeyBank National AssociationDOUBLE B, LLC148100Alaska USA FCUFOSSELMAN & ASSOCIATES CPA'S INC142058First National Bank AlaskaTURKEY RED LLC141845Matanuska Valley FCUPIONEER VETERINARY CLINIC LLC141167Bank of America, National AssociationALASKA PACIFIC RENTAL137010Matanuska Valley FCUSOUND DECISIONS LLC135473First National Bank AlaskaADVANCED PLUMBING & HEATING INC.134297First National Bank AlaskaDOUBLE B LLC132507First National Bank AlaskaTB,INC.131900KeyBank National AssociationTEBOW FINANCIAL GROUP INC.130310Northrim BankTEBOW FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.130310Northrim BankVAGABOND BLUES INC127752Matanuska Valley FCULAKE VIEW GENERAL CONTRACTING INC.127145First National Bank AlaskaLAKE VIEW GENERAL CONTRACTING, INC127145First National Bank AlaskaEAGLE GOLF COURSE MANAGEMENT LLC125400Alaska USA FCUKODIAK MAPPING INC.125000Alaska USA FCUBOILER MAN PLUMBING AND HEATING INC123815First National Bank AlaskaT & J GRAVEL PRODUCTS INC.122332First National Bank AlaskaOTTELRAM INVESTMENTS, INC.121790First National Bank AlaskaCACHE CAMPER MANUFACTURING INC.121681Northrim BankVALLEY GENERAL CONSTRUCTION LLC119865Matanuska Valley FCUKODIAK MAPPING INC118500Alaska USA FCULYNSEY LINDSTROM DDS PC118107Columbia State BankKNIK RIVER LODGE LLC116581Alaska USA FCUMAT-SU VALLEY COMPREHENSIVE CANCER CENTER LLC112900First-Citizens Bank & Trust CompanyT & J GRAVEL PRODUCTS, INC.111695First National Bank AlaskaINTEGRATED WELLNESS & CENTER FOR BIRTH, LLC111650Matanuska Valley FCUBODY IN BALANCE PHYSICAL THERAPY, INC.108301First National Bank AlaskaBOILER MAN PLUMBING AND HEATING INC107562First National Bank AlaskaA A A VALLEY GRAVEL LLC107320Bank of America, National AssociationALASKA ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS LLC106750Northrim BankLODESTAR FAMILY EYE CARE105912Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationH & H SHEET METAL INC.105497First National Bank AlaskaLODESTAR FAMILY EYE CARE103987Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationWM CONSTRUCTION LLC102553Northrim BankWM CONSTRUCTION, LLC102553Northrim BankJIM PSENAK CONSTRUCTION LLC102092Northrim BankALASKA BIBLE COLLEGE101967Matanuska Valley FCUPROSSER-DAGG CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, LLC99709Northrim BankPROSSER DAGG CONSTRUCTION COMPANY LLC99709Northrim BankWIRTANEN INC99186Northrim BankLYNSEY LINDSTROM DDS PC97610Columbia State BankKENNERSON EXCAVATION, INC.96638Northrim BankB-J'S SERVICES INC.95967Matanuska Valley FCUAUBERIN STRICKLAND95830Matanuska Valley FCUPALMER SENIOR CITIZENS CENTER INC94385First National Bank AlaskaBOLSHIO MISHA INC.94023First National Bank AlaskaMATSU EAR NOSE THROAT FACIAL PLASTICS92370Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationAK NURTURED LIVING LLC92012NuVision FCUVALLEY GENERAL CONSTRUCTION LLC91450Matanuska Valley FCUF/V SEA KING INC91112Matanuska Valley FCUF/V SEA KING, INC.91112Matanuska Valley FCUHUTCHINGS DENTAL LLC90914Columbia State BankTHE FX CORPORATION90859Northrim BankALASKA CHIROPRACTIC BETHEL89042First National Bank AlaskaB-J'S SERVICES INC88820Matanuska Valley FCUDEEPTREE, INC.87600KeyBank National AssociationARCTIC CHIROPRACTIC BETHEL87027First National Bank AlaskaCUSTOM AIRCRAFT INC86607Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationFRIESEN'S CUSTOM CABINS INC.86490Matanuska Valley FCUFRIESENS CUSTOM CABINS86490Matanuska Valley FCUDESIGN GRAPHICS LLC85000First National Bank AlaskaDN RAY INC84412Matanuska Valley FCUVALLEY ALLERGY AND ASTHMA CLINIC LLC84200Alaska USA FCUPALMER FAMILY MEDICINE, P.C.84082First National Bank AlaskaVALLEY RV CENTER INC84039Northrim BankDUNEDIN STRICKLAND81687Matanuska Valley FCUVALLEY ALLERGY AND ASTHMA CLINIC LLC81210Alaska USA FCUWIRTANEN, INC.80400Northrim BankARCTIC CHIROPRACTIC UNALASKA80318First National Bank AlaskaKENNETH J. GOLDMAN PC79755Matanuska Valley FCUMAGIC METALS INC.79600Alaska USA FCUOPTIMUM PERFORMANCE CHIROPRACTIC, INC79300Alaska USA FCULUKAS STRICKLAND79297Matanuska Valley FCUHYLITE FABRICATION LLC78860Matanuska Valley FCUGENERAL FAMILY DENTISTRY INC.78612First National Bank AlaskaTAK-MING KO MD, LLC78000Alaska USA FCUJGH PLUMBING & HEATING INC77405Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationJGH PLUMBING & HEATING INC77071Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationGENERAL FAMILY DENTISTRY INC.75505First National Bank AlaskaWOLF ARCHITECTURE, INC.74738First National Bank AlaskaMAGGIE ARWOOD LLC72698Northrim BankEXCEL GYMNASTICS LLC71224First National Bank AlaskaEXCEL GYMNASTICS LLC71217First National Bank AlaskaG-FORCE TRANSMISSION & AUTO, LLC70350Northrim BankOPTIMUM PERFORMANCE CHIROPRACTIC INC70000Alaska USA FCUMATANUSKA LAW LLC69747Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationCUSTOM AIRCRAFT INC67924Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPROFILES OF EXCELLENCE, INC.67668First National Bank AlaskaPROFILES OF EXCELLENCE INC67667First National Bank AlaskaGLACIER SURGICAL ASSOCIATES67380First National Bank AlaskaGLACIER SURGICAL ASSOCIATES INC65345First National Bank AlaskaMOUSE TRAP PLAYSCHOOL INC.65000KeyBank National AssociationKENNETH J GOLDMAN, P.C.64845Matanuska Valley FCURONS POWERSPORT CENTER, INC.63050First National Bank AlaskaFOUR GILLS LLC62497Matanuska Valley FCUPOLARIS MARKETING ASSOCIATES INC62362Matanuska Valley FCULOU-JACK INC.61310First National Bank AlaskaPIONEER PIZZA CO61002Matanuska Valley FCUAPEX PLUMBING & HEATING SERVICES LLC60980First National Bank AlaskaHALLS AUTO BODY LLC60173Alaska USA FCUROCKY POINT DEVELOPMENT, LLC59303Denali State BankALASKA GARDEN GATE B & B AND COTTAGES57602First National Bank AlaskaWHITE KNIGHT SERVCIES57564First National Bank AlaskaDALRYMPLE LAW, P.C.56842First National Bank AlaskaMT MCKINLEY MEAT & SAUSAGE LLC56495Northrim BankKIDS KUPBOARD56040Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationALASKA AUTOMOTIVE 1 LLC55955Matanuska Valley FCUTREE OF LIFE55400Alaska USA FCUMUSK OX DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION55327First National Bank AlaskaGREENSTREET GENERAL CONTRACTING LLC55125First National Bank AlaskaPALMER LIFEWAYS LLC54915NuVision FCUARCTIC CHIROPRACTIC UNALASKA54695First National Bank AlaskaPALMER LIFEWAYS LLC54202NuVision FCUMATANUSKA BREWING COMPANY, LLC53495KeyBank National AssociationSERENITY FISHERIES LLC53360Alaska USA FCUMARK REMPEL53233Matanuska Valley FCUFARMER SURVEYING LLC52800Matanuska Valley FCUMT MCKINLEY MEATS & SAUSAGE, LLC52741Northrim BankJOSEPH T. HAWKINS DBA52717Matanuska Valley FCUGREENSTREET GENERAL CONTRACTING, LLC52040First National Bank AlaskaFARMER SURVEYING LLC50910Matanuska Valley FCUENCORE MECHANICAL INC50330First National Bank AlaskaNORTHERN ENTERPRISE LLC50050Matanuska Valley FCUOWENS INSPECTION SERVICES LLC49900KeyBank National AssociationDAKOTA DIGGERS LLC49200Northrim Bank907 ASSOCIATES LLC48204First National Bank AlaskaKNIK RIVER LODGE, LLC47880Alaska USA FCUTAMARK BUILDERS47720First National Bank AlaskaJOSEPH HAWKINS47450Matanuska Valley FCUAKC HOMES, LLC47232Matanuska Valley FCUFARMERS FRAMING LLC47104Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationENCORE MECHANICAL, INC.46975First National Bank AlaskaSTOHLER AND LONERGAN P.C.46330First National Bank AlaskaNOW HEALTH, LLC46086Cross River BankDR NATALIE J BEYELER, DO BC AND ASSOCIATES INTERNAL MEDICINE46000Customers BankBACKCOUNTRY BIKE AND SKI LLC45900Alaska USA FCUARCTIC CHIROPRACTIC SITKA LLC45515Denali State BankPRPARIM MUSLIU45132First National Bank AlaskaNA HOLDINGS, LLC44923First National Bank AlaskaPIONEER PEAK FARM44791Matanuska Valley FCUFENCE EMPORIUM OF ALASKA INC43000Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationDBA: KLONDIKE MIKE'S AND THE MAIN ST. GRILL42777First National Bank AlaskaPIONEERING ALASKA LLC42666Northrim BankPIONEERING ALASKA LLC42666Northrim BankJACKSON MASONRY LLC42547First National Bank AlaskaWEBSTER LEASING & WOOD SERVICES LLC42500KeyBank National AssociationJAKE'S AND ASSOCIATES, INC.42365Northrim BankRENT-A-GEEK, LTD42155First National Bank AlaskaCRAZY RAYS ADVENTURES LLC41666Alaska USA FCUSILVA INSURANCE SERVICES LLC41330First National Bank AlaskaSUNRISE COMMUNITY LIVING41322Northrim BankALL AMERICAN LAND SERVICES, LLC40470Bank of America, National AssociationNOW HEALTH LLC40465Cross River BankSHANE LAMB STUDIOS40360Matanuska Valley FCUSTEWARD ENTERPRISES INCORPORATED40000First National Bank AlaskaJONES & ASSOCIATES, LLC39295First National Bank AlaskaWISHING WELLNESS LLC38542Matanuska Valley FCUWISHING WELLNESS LLC38542Matanuska Valley FCUWALSTIB LLC38298Northrim BankPHOENIX MANAGEMENT INC38273Fowler State BankALASKA CHICKS CO37335Matanuska Valley FCUJOHN BUSH37045Matanuska Valley FCUCOHO FAMILY MEDICINE LLC36746Northrim BankHOME COMFORTS INC.36251Cross River BankJACKSON MASONRY, LLC35975First National Bank AlaskaHEIRLOOM WELLNESS & BIRTH LLC35803Northrim BankBUSHES BUNCHES STAND35187Matanuska Valley FCUBIRDS AND BEES MIDWIFERY LLC35039Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationBUCKLEY'S CUSTOM COVERINGS, LLC34916Alaska USA FCUALOPEX INTERACTION DESIGN LLC34754Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationTHE ANDERSON AGENCY LLC34638Alaska USA FCULISA JACKSON34535First National Bank AlaskaYUKON RIVER DRAINAGE FISHERIES ASSOCIATI34411Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationREVIVE AESTHETICS & SPA PALMER, LLC34132First National Bank AlaskaCLOUDS REST COMMONS INC33942First National Bank AlaskaSALLY KOPPENBERG33800Matanuska Valley FCUDENONCOUR CONSTRUCTION33534Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationSPURS BAR AND GRILL LLC33380Matanuska Valley FCUSHARON K SCHAEFER, MD INC33332Fowler State BankTRACY MOFFITT33262First National Bank AlaskaTHE GREEN STORE INC32855Matanuska Valley FCUSUNRISE GRILL32238First National Bank AlaskaINSULATION CONTRACTORS OF ALASKA LLC32055NuVision FCUTOP END, INC.31863First National Bank AlaskaNORTHLAND PROPERTY SERVICES INC.31752First National Bank AlaskaMARLEY T GROUP31612First National Bank AlaskaALASKA POWER & COMMUNICATIONS31416Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationCUSTOM WORKS31400Alaska USA FCUCOLVER SURVEYING COMPANY31250First National Bank AlaskaCOLVER SURVEYING COMPANY31250First National Bank AlaskaPREMIER ACUPUNCTURE & COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE, INC31200KeyBank National AssociationOJR FISHERIES LLC30925Northrim BankALASKA ARTISAN COFFEE, LLC30492Northrim BankPASSAGES, PET CREMATION AND GRIEF CENTER, INC.30300Live Oak Banking CompanyJOHN E. JOHNSON30207Matanuska Valley FCUHATCHER PASS CORPORATION29725Northrim BankPURPLE MOOSE ESPRESSO LLC29708First National Bank AlaskaNATALIE J BEYELER DO29500Readycap Lending, LLCSETH DENSMORE29165Matanuska Valley FCUPREMIER ACUPUNCTURE & COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE INC.28925KeyBank National AssociationSYDNEE PROPERTIES, LLC28480Matanuska Valley FCUD & S ALASKAN TRAIL RIDES, INC28417Matanuska Valley FCUD & S ALASKAN TRAIL RIDES INC.28417Matanuska Valley FCUALMA VIZZERRA28136Northrim BankRENNER REAL ESTATE AND INVESTMENTS28044First National Bank AlaskaVANGO ENTERPRISES LLC27652Matanuska Valley FCUARCTIC CHIROPRACTIC DILLINGHAM27390First National Bank AlaskaREINDEER TOURS LLC27122Matanuska Valley FCUCORK'S AUTO INC.26900Alaska USA FCUNEW VIBRATIONS26892Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPIZZA ATHENA LLC26380Matanuska Valley FCUBENDERS OF HAIR26285Northrim BankAUTO BODY CONCEPTS26160Matanuska Valley FCUMAE'S INTERIORS25936Alaska USA FCUA1 ELECTRIC LLC25798KeyBank National AssociationTHREE BEARS GALLERY AND GIFTS INC25515Matanuska Valley FCUEMPOWER MEDICAL AND WELLNESS LLC25289Northrim BankTYLER JORGENSEN D.C. LLC25274First National Bank AlaskaNORTAK BUILDERS INC25215Alaska USA FCULITTLE FRIENDS CHILDCARE & PRESCHOOL25000Alaska USA FCUJAMES HUNT24910Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationTIMBERLINE SAWMILL AND CABIN CO., LLC24802Matanuska Valley FCUMYRA D. OLSEN24790Matanuska Valley FCUFRESH STARTS FARMS LLC24707Matanuska Valley FCUPIONEER MOTEL LLC24500Alaska USA FCUIN & OUT DRYWALL23820First National Bank AlaskaALPENGLOW BUILDERS23670Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA RURAL REHABILITATION CORPORATION23612First National Bank AlaskaVANGO ENTERPRISES LLC23612Matanuska Valley FCUISRAEL HALE23469Northrim BankCAVAN TRANSPORTATION, LLC23420Bank of the WestNORTHERN ENTERPRISE LLC23205Matanuska Valley FCURICHARD ELIASON JR.23192First BankSILVERTIP SIGNS & TROPHY LLC22932Matanuska Valley FCUINNOVATIVE FUNDING LLC22867Matanuska Valley FCUPIONEER PEAK INDUSTRIES LLC22438Customers BankARCTIC DOGS, LLC22367Matanuska Valley FCUBOOTLEG ELECTRIC LLC22357Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationARCTIC CHIROPRACTIC DILLINGHAM22320First National Bank AlaskaMAT-SU TRAILS AND PARKS FOUNDATION22120Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA PLUMBING HEATING & CONSTRUCTION SERVICES21922Matanuska Valley FCUUNITED PROTESTANT CHURCH INC21452Matanuska Valley FCUNATHAN EVANS21204Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA SURGICAL ASSOCIATES LLC20883Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationHATCHER PASS CORPORATION20880Northrim BankCOMPASS REALTY CO.20833Northrim BankCLARENCE DELORME20833Alaska USA FCUTRISTAN ANDERSON20833IAA CUERIC CRAIG20833First United BankDANIEL DAVIS20833Alaska USA FCURONALD NELSON20833First United BankCOMPASS REALTY CO.20833Northrim BankSHANNON SPEAR20833First United BankBABAMS20833Cross River BankPALMER CHIROPRACTIC CLINIC20833Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationCOLLIN SZYMANSKI20833Alaska USA FCUPRECISION FRONTIERS LLC20833First National Bank AlaskaAK&CO REAL ESTATE LLC20833A10Capital, LLCBRYAN ALBERT20833Itria Ventures LLCALEXANDRE REUTOV20833Northrim BankJANA POWELL20833Matanuska Valley FCUTHOMAS VAN DIEST20833Customers BankBRADLEY KIEHN20833Alaska USA FCURED MOUNTAIN CONSULTING LLC20833Northrim BankRANDELL BOVY20833Northrim BankPRECISION FRONTIERS20832First National Bank AlaskaLISA KINLEY20832First National Bank AlaskaNELSON DELBIANCO20832Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationCOLONY CONSTRUCTION LLC20832Matanuska Valley FCUMATTHEW AMSDEN20832NuVision FCUALASKA ADVENTURE VACATIONS20832Matanuska Valley FCUBARRY MILEUR20832Matanuska Valley FCUNORTHERN CROSSING CONSTRUCTION20832Matanuska Valley FCUCONN INC20681Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationGENESIS JUNGLE20227Matanuska Valley FCUSTUART WELLS20225Harvest Small Business Finance, LLCDANIEL LATHROP20172Matanuska Valley FCUKEVIN COCHRAN20070First National Bank AlaskaJAMES PRICE19833First National Bank AlaskaMATTHEW ETTINGER19615Matanuska Valley FCUAK TREE SERVICE LLC19448Northrim BankITHAKA MANAGEMENT SERVICES LLC19187First National Bank AlaskaRICHARD R OWENS19019Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationINSULATION CONTRACTORS OF ALASKA, LLC18956NuVision FCUBOOTLEG ELECTRIC LLC18824Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationBEAR MOUNTAIN MEATS LLC18790First National Bank AlaskaMAT-SU BASEBALL INC18345Northrim BankBEE WELL CHIROPRACTIC18200KeyBank National AssociationALL ALASKAN AUTO & TRANSMISSIONS LLC17958Northrim BankBLONDIES COFFEE CO17831Alaska USA FCUPOPPY LANE MERCANTILE, LLC17697Matanuska Valley FCUCHERISE M. NEU AND ERON SINGLETON17538KeyBank National AssociationPIONEER MOTEL LLC17500Alaska USA FCUARCTIC ORGANICS17122Matanuska Valley FCUCONSTANCE FREDENBERG17105Matanuska Valley FCUVALLEY CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE CONGREGATION BASED COMMUNITY ORG16980Matanuska Valley FCUMARINA REUTOV16884Alaska USA FCUCONSTANCE FREDENBERG16830WebBankNORTHLAND PROPERTY SERVICES, INC16771First National Bank AlaskaHATCHER ALPINE XPERIENCE16575First National Bank AlaskaCAVAN TRANSPORTATION LLC16547Bank of the WestILWTI16500Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationALL AMERICAN LAND SERVICES LLC16425Bank of America, National AssociationNORTHSTAR SUPPLY LLC16215First National Bank AlaskaTOP OF THE WORLD MECHANICAL LLC16200Customers BankWALTER LEE BENNETT16088Alaska USA FCUWALTER BENNETT16087Alaska USA FCUBESSIE HAUSMANN15987Alaska USA FCUA & A GENERAL, LLC15642Matanuska Valley FCUFLOOD OUT RESTORE, INC.15625First National Bank AlaskaTOP OF THE WORLD MECHANICAL15392Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationPIONEER CONTRACTING LLC15195KeyBank National AssociationGEORGE COLLUM15000Alaska USA FCUEWF POWERSPORTS INC15000Loan Source IncorporatedVALLEY DENTURES14915Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA FARMLAND TRUST CORPORATION14895Matanuska Valley FCUALPINE TECHNOLOGIES14860First National Bank AlaskaPIONEER CONTRACTING, LLC14852KeyBank National AssociationSTAR LABORATORY14500Alaska USA FCUDAVID ADAMS14425First National Bank Alaska203 KOMBUCHA14307Matanuska Valley FCU203 KOMBUCHA LLC14307Matanuska Valley FCUSMITH & SON'S PAINTING LLC14152Matanuska Valley FCUSMITH & SON'S PAINTING LLC14152Matanuska Valley FCUNORTHWEST GENERAL LLC14000KeyBank National AssociationRIGHT FIT INTERNATIONAL LLC13928Northrim BankQUIX FLORAL LLC13900Alaska USA FCUMATTHEW MILLAR13646Northrim BankWIL.CO INC13552KeyBank National AssociationMARK DIEHL13532Middlesex Federal Savings, F.A.FERNANDEZ REAL ESTATE GROUP LLC13331NuVision FCUWILD IRIS INTEGRATIVE MASSAGE LLC13300Alaska USA FCUWHIMSY GIFT SHOP13000Alaska USA FCUBLONDIES COFFEE CO13000Alaska USA FCUTAX SOLUTIONS LLC12916Mountain America FCUBAN THAI LLC12847Northrim BankBAN THAI LLC12847Northrim BankCHRISTOPHER ESS12751Alaska USA FCUMATANUSKA ASSEMBLY OF GOD INC12278Alaska USA FCUTHE THOMAS COMPANY, INC.12000Northrim BankTOP OF THE WORLD MECHANICAL LLC11944Readycap Lending, LLCMATANUSKA VALLEY POST NO. 15 OF THE AMERICAN LEGION11677Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA HEALTH CARE BILLING SERVICE LLC11375Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA DIGITAL CONNECTIONS LLC11315Northrim BankALASKA HORSE ADVENTURES LLC11219Northrim BankCLEARWATER WELLS LLC11205Matanuska Valley FCUJANA POWELL11025Matanuska Valley FCUEAGLE HOTEL LLC10825Northrim BankWAKEFIELD, INC.10700Alaska USA FCUDANIEL ROGERS10700Alaska USA FCUCOASTAL CULTURES RESEARCH AND CONSULTING10658Alaska USA FCULUPINE ENT. LLC10600Alaska USA FCUBRANDON GILLESPIE10480Alaska USA FCUARCTIC THERAPY AND REHAB BETHEL10415First National Bank AlaskaEWETOPIA FARMS LLC10260Matanuska Valley FCUTRUE NORTH PLASTICS, LLC10240Northrim BankVICTORY ENT LLC10231Square Capital, LLCVICTORY ENT LLC10231Square Capital, LLCCHYKO CONSTRUCTION LLC10000Matanuska Valley FCUGRACE M LONG, PHD10000Northrim BankPALMER COFFEE CO.10000Kaua'i Government Employees' FCUALASKAN APPLIANCE REPAIR LLC10000Alaska USA FCUINTEGRATED TECHNOLOGIES LLC9957Matanuska Valley FCURAYMOND WHITTOCK9837Matanuska Valley FCUDESIGNS BY ANDREA9710Northrim BankANDREA HOOKS9710Northrim BankHARDY CONSTRUCTION INC9665First National Bank AlaskaPALMER FAMILY CHURCH OF THE NAZARENE9569Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationALASKA INTERPRETING ALLIANCE INC.9342Alaska USA FCUALASKA INTERPRETING ALLIANCE, INC.9342Alaska USA FCUWILDERNESS EMERGENCY MEDICAL EDUCATION, LLC9285Matanuska Valley FCUAARON MAHAN9030Northrim BankWIL.CO INC9000KeyBank National AssociationLAURA L.M. GRAUVOGEL8965First National Bank AlaskaALASKA ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH LLC8900Alaska USA FCUMATSUPLATS8900Alaska USA FCUCHRISTIAN BOAZ SESSOM LLC8865First National Bank AlaskaGLASS ART BY BARB AND THE ART CAFE LLC8817Northrim BankGLASS ART BY BARB AND THE ART CAFE LLC8817Northrim BankDOROTHA LITTLETON8749Northrim BankCUSTOM TEMPERED GLASS LLC8702First National Bank AlaskaRENCO ELECTRIC OF ALASKA, LLC8700Alaska USA FCURPS SHERGILL MD LLC8545Northrim BankKIRA SINGLETON8526Alaska USA FCUAK FOAM PRO8487Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationK&S ALASKA INC8317First National Bank AlaskaKENDRA NUGENT8234Square Capital, LLCDO NORTH CONSTRUCTION LLC8115Matanuska Valley FCUDO NORTH CONSTRUCTION, LLC8115Matanuska Valley FCUJIM KLAUDER CARPENTRY8080Matanuska Valley FCUJAMES F. KLAUDER8080Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH LLC8035Alaska USA FCUSMOOTH DIMENSIONS7585First National Bank AlaskaCARLEE STAHLE7582First National Bank AlaskaABIGAILS7578NuVision FCUPIPIT CARPENTRY, INC.7505Matanuska Valley FCUGHOST TOWN LEATHER7401Wells Fargo Bank, National AssociationSUNRISE MANOR ASSITED LIVING HOME7365NuVision FCUALASKA PHOTOGRAPHY & DESIGN7330Matanuska Valley FCUALASKA PHOTOGRAPHY AND DESIGN7330WebBankERIN TROUTMAN7325Square Capital, LLCQUALITY MOVING SERVICE INC.7309KeyBank National AssociationARCTIC THERAPY AND REHAB BETHEL LLC7292First National Bank AlaskaMOUNTAIN FIELD FARM LLC7260Mid Oregon FCUFOX RUN LODGE & RV CAMPGROUND7230Matanuska Valley FCUPHO AND THAI RESTAURANT7160Northrim BankOJR FISHERIES, LLC7137Northrim BankRYAN DUNYON7032First United BankNORTHSTAR SUPPLY LLC7022First National Bank AlaskaESTHETICS BY HEATHER LLC6800Alaska USA FCUKIMBERLY STEPHENS6592First United BankTHREE LADYBUGS6520Alaska USA FCUARCTIC HORSE LLC6500Alaska USA FCUJEREMIAH SORRELL6423Northrim BankMAGGIE HEJL6311Square Capital, LLCVITANOVA LLC6115Customers BankBUCKINGHAM CONSTRUCTION LLC6048Northrim BankKRISTEN ANN WEGLEITNER5955First National Bank AlaskaSONJA REEVES5867Legacy BankHAIR BY CLAIRE LLC5800Alaska USA FCUTHREE LADYBUGS5750Alaska USA FCUDETERMINATION RENOVATION LLC5730Northrim BankABBY'S PLACE5703Wells Fargo Bank, National Association
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